- EPA Presentations
- Principles for Ecological Land Reuse
- Soil Science
- Soil Amendments
- Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration
- Plants and Revegetation
- Growing Gardens in Urban Soils
- Ecosystem Services
- Creating Pollinator Habitats as Part of an Ecological Revitalization Project
- Act Locally
- Organizations and Resources
- Land Revitalization Assistance
- Case Study Profiles
- Publications and Resources
General Ecological Assessment Endpoints for Ecological Risk Assessment
EPA recently released the second edition of the General Ecological Assessment Endpoints for Ecological Risk Assessment. The Purpose of this document is to build on existing EPA guidance and experience to assist those who are involved in ecological risk assessment in considering ecosystem services when selecting assessment endpoints. Incorporating ecosystem services endpoints in ecological risk assessments can make the assessments relevant to decision makers and stakeholders whose concerns may be more oriented toward societal outcomes.
USGS Report on the Economic Impacts of Ecosystem Restoration
This report provides a detailed description of the methods used to estimate economic impacts of case study projects and also provides suggestions, lessons learned, and trade-offs between potential analysis methods. It estimates the economic impacts of a wide variety of ecosystem restoration projects associated with U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) lands and programs. The study indicates that ecosystem restoration projects provide meaningful economic contributions to local economies and to broader regional and national economies, and, based on the case studies, we estimate that between 13 and 32 job-years and between 3.4 million in total economic output are contributed to the U.S. economy for every $1 million invested in ecosystem restoration. These results highlight the magnitude and variability in the economic impacts associated with ecosystem restoration projects and demonstrate how investments in ecosystem restoration support jobs and livelihoods, small businesses, and rural economies.
New National Academies Report on Ecological Restoration on the Gulf Coast
Effective Monitoring to Evaluate Ecological Restoration in the Gulf of Mexico identifies best practices for monitoring and evaluating restoration activities to improve the performance of restoration programs and increase the effectiveness and longevity of restoration projects. This report provides general guidance for restoration monitoring, assessment, and synthesis that can be applied to most ecological restoration projects. It also offers specific guidance for a subset of habitats and taxa to be restored in the Gulf including oyster reefs, tidal wetlands, and seagrass habitats, as well as a variety of birds, sea turtles, and marine mammals.
New Forest Service Center for Plant Conservation
Scientists from three U.S. Forest Service research stations in the western United States recently established a collaborative group called the Western Center for Native Plant Conservation and Restoration Science. The center's mission is to address, and provide science-based solutions to, ongoing challenges in the conservation and restoration of western ecosystems, including impacts from fire, invasive species, climate change and drought, and pollinator decline. For more information, please read the news release.
Restoration of Mine Tailings Site Using Soil Amendments
The University of Arizona Superfund Research Program recently published a study on the successful stabilization and revitalization of land contaminated with mine tailings at the Humboldt Smelter Superfund site by the use of soil amendments. Adding soil amendments led to the establishment and sustained growth of native plants over four years.
Why restore disturbed or contaminated lands?
Habitat preservation is key to an ecosystem's health and well-being, and there is a growing awareness that restoration is essential to recover ecosystems that have been degraded or destroyed. Furthermore, contaminated or disturbed sites that have been restored are once again available for public use and enjoyment
The public's interest in the renewal of natural ecosystems has grown steadily during the past few decades. EPA's Superfund Redevelopment Program assists communities in returning some of the nation's worst hazardous waste sites to safe and productive uses. While the Agency works to protect human health and the environment, EPA also works with communities and other partners to consider future uses for restored Superfund sites. Many sites are now being used as parkland, agricultural land, residences and commercial space.
Ecological reuse can be incorporated into site remediation plans for Superfund sites because it provides habitat for wildlife and is not considered beautification or enhancement. Returning contaminated sites to beneficial use not only allows local communities to reclaim lost land – it can also lead to increased property values, a higher tax base, and protected open space. In addition, when local interests have a stake in the revitalized property, the chances are greater for continued productive use.
Benefits of Ecological Land Reuse
- Provides wildlife habitat
- Sequesters carbon
- Remediates and beneficially reuses damaged lands
- Improves property values
- Improves image
- Reduces wind and water erosion of contaminants
- Protects water resources
- Creates green spaces and corridors
- Improves the community by removing stigma associated with prior waste sites
Why are ecosystems important to ecological land reuse?
Project managers seeking to return a contaminated site to a safe and productive use should look not only to the future of the site; but also consider its past structure and function by looking at the site as an ecosystem – a dynamic environment of living organisms and non-living matter intricately connected by energy and nutrient flows.
Many reuse projects focus solely on manipulating certain elements, such as soil, vegetation, and hydrology, with little attention paid to the links between these and the broader landscape and biosphere. Such actions may not necessarily address all of the ecosystem's needs. Other living organisms, such as insects, wildlife, and microorganisms also form an integral part of the system and must be accounted for, if possible, for the system to flourish. For example: many of the native flowering plant species in the United States rely on bees, hummingbirds or other pollinators to help them reproduce and disperse across the landscape. The flowers and the hummingbird have a symbiotic relationship that benefits them both – the flower produces nectar that the hummingbird feeds on, and the hummingbird carries pollen from one flower to the next, allowing it to reproduce. If a degraded site is repopulated with native wildflowers, but no pollinators are introduced into the site, the native plants may die out and be replaced by invasive species. In order to maintain desired levels of native plant diversity, the restoration and reuse process therefore must ensure that an adequate level of pollinator species is present.
Ecosystem-based reuse can be an important aspect of many remediation projects. If the goal is to return a site to a close approximation of its natural, pre-disturbance state, then an ecosystem-based approach is essential. This approach will ensure that the newly restored site once again becomes an integral part of its environment. More information can be found here: Climate Change and Ecosystems.