U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Air Sparging


Adobe PDF LogoSource Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel-Contaminated Sites. Technical Summary Report
2000. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, 125 pp.

This report summarizes field performance studies of the following source reduction technologies: air sparging, bioventing, biosparging, soil vapor extraction, multi-phase extraction, and excavation.

Adobe PDF LogoAir Sparging/ High Vacuum Extraction to Remove Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater and Soil
1998. J.M. Phelan (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM); M.D. Gilliat (Babcock and Wilcox, OH). SAND--98-2016C, NTIS: DE99000593, 12 pp.

At the DOE Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, an air sparging and high vacuum extraction system was installed as an alternative to a containment pump and treat system. Technical data are presented on the operating characteristics of the system. Available through the DOE Information Bridge.

A Field-Scale Demonstration of Air Sparging to Remediate Tritiated Fluids
1996. C.E. Russell; D.R. Gillespie; S.L. Hokett; J.D. Donithan, Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV, Desert Research Inst. DOE/NV/11508--09, NTIS: DE97003546, 48 pp.

Two pilot field-scale studies were conducted in 1996 to evaluate the potential of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids. The results of the two experiments demonstrated that air sparging of tritium is a viable process in the field.

Adobe PDF LogoCombined Air Sparge and Bioremediation of an Underground Coal Gasification Site
1996. J.R. Covell; M.H. Thomas. DOE/MC/31346--97/C0830, NTIS: DE97054045, 27 pp.

In 1996, EG&G Technical Services of West Virginia (TSWV) Inc. successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of combined air sparge and biostimulation technology to remediate benzene contamination at a former underground coal gasification (UCG) test site in northeastern Wyoming. Benzene concentration reductions greater than 80% were observed two months after demonstration operations were suspended. Available through the DOE Information Bridge.

Air Sparging and Soil Vapor Extraction at Landfill 4, Fort Lewis, Washington: Cost & Performance Report
1998. Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. 44 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoDensity-Driven Groundwater Sparging at Amcor Precast Ogden, Utah: Cost & Performance Report
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable.

In Situ Air Stripping of Contaminated Groundwater at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, A/M Area, Aiken, South Carolina: Cost & Performance Report
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Air Stripping Using Horizontal Wells Demonstrated at U.S. Department of Energy M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC: Innovative Technology Summary Report
1995. DOE/EM--0269, 32 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoSubsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS): SITE Technology Capsule
EPA 540-R-94-529a, 1995. 7 pp.

Assessing UST Corrective Action Technologies: Lessons Learned about In Situ Air Sparging at the Denison Avenue Site, Cleveland, OH
EPA 600-R-95-040, 1994. PB95-188082, 110 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoAdvanced Fuel Hydrocarbon Remediation National Test Location: In Situ Air Sparging System
1997. NFESC-TDS-2029-ENV (REV), ADA323452, 3 pp.

Pump and Treat, In Situ Bioremediation, and In Situ Air Sparging of Contaminated Groundwater at Site A, Long Island, New York: Cost and Performance Report
1988. 16pp.

Work Plan for C-SpargeĀ® Demonstration Test at Building C-752-A Area Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky
2001. Washington Group International, Cleveland, OH. Prepared for Sandia National Lab, Albuquerque, NM, 172 pp.

Use of Cometabolic Air Sparging to Remediate Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
2001. Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Arlington, VA. 73 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoMulti-Site Air Sparging
2002. Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH. 115 pp.

Describes the results of 10 air sparging demonstrations completed at DoD facilities to implement and evaluate the Air Sparging Design Paradigm.

Adobe PDF LogoPush-Pull Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, NTIS: ADA468544, 46 pp, 2006

Single-well push/pull test methods were demonstrated at Fort Lewis Logistics Center (using toluene as a cometabolic growth substrate) and McClellan AFB (during cometabolic air sparging with propane as a growth substrate) to determine (1) the transport characteristics of nutrients, substrates, and CAHs and their transformation products; (2) the capability of indigenous microorganisms to utilize selected substrates and transform targeted contaminants and surrogate compounds; (3) the rates of substrate utilization and contaminant transformation; and (4) the combinations of injected nutrients and substrates that maximize rates of contaminant transformation.

Adobe PDF LogoRemoval of MTBE from Drinking Water Using Air Stripping: Case Studies
R. Deeb, E. Hawley, A. Stocking, M. Kavanaugh, A. Flores, S. Sue, D. Spiers, M. Wooden, G. Crawford, and G. Garcia.
National Water Research Institute, NWRI-2006-03, 92 pp, 2006

Design, performance, and cost summary data were collected from nine packed-tower and low-profile air stripper treatment systems that address MTBE contamination in ground-water supplies in the 1990s to develop a series of cost and reliability curves and assess the accuracy of two models designed to predict the cost and performance of packed-tower and low-profile air strippers. Results indicate that a variety of different treatment train configurations can use air strippers successfully to remove a range of MTBE concentrations (i.e., from 10 to 2,400,000 ug/L). Removal efficiencies ranged from 65% to greater than 99.9%. The commercially available models predicted actual removal efficiencies within 15%.

Adobe PDF LogoJV Task 104: Risk Reduction Using Innovative Vacuum-Enhanced Plume Controls
J. Solc and B.W. Botnen.
2009-EERC-03-03, 55 pp, 2009

Remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater was conducted at the Vining Oil site in Carrington, ND, via simultaneous operation of MPE and high-vacuum SVE contaminant recovery coupled with vacuum-controlled air and ozone sparging on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Integration of the air-sparging subsystem operated simultaneously with MPE and SVE systems resulted in accelerated transport of volatile organics from the saturated zone and increased recovery of contaminants of concern. Delivery of over 7.7 million cubic ft of oxygen into the contaminated aquifer resulted in in situ biodegradation of benzene and provided for long-term stimulation of contaminant attenuation. Monitoring results from September 2006 to June 2008 are reported.

Adobe PDF LogoInstallation and Start-Up of In-Situ Air Sparge/Soil Vapour Extraction Remediation System for Strip Mall
Matsueda, T., SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd.
REMTECH 2010: The Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, AB, Canada, 20-22 Oct 2010. Environmental Services Association of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada), 43 slides, 2010

During distillery operations at the site from the 1950s to the early 1980s, backup fuel supplies (furnace oil/diesel) leaked into the soil and groundwater. In the late 1980s, the site was redeveloped into a strip mall whose southwest wing, referred to as the CRU-D building, was constructed atop the contaminated soil and groundwater. Previous consultants installed an in situ AS/SVE system to the west of and beneath the CRU-D building in 1997 and operated it until August 2008. Between September 2008 and December 2009, SLR completed delineation of soil and groundwater contamination beneath and around the CRU-D building, reviewed all site data, and designed a new in situ AS/SVE remedial system that targeted the optimal areas, depths, and soil units, with dedicated piping for each sparge and extraction line and higher capacity blowers and compressors to achieve optimal pressures and flow rates. Installation and startup of the new remedial system took place between January and May 2010. This presentation describes the challenges and logistics of drilling at an occupied/operating mall; the management and reduction of remediation system sound levels from equipment to comply with local bylaws; and the challenges and successes of system optimization and effectiveness.

Successful Application of Air Sparging to Remediate Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) in Ground Water in Kansas
McGuire, E. and J.T. Wilson.
National Tanks Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, 20-22 September 2010. 33 slides, 2010

In 1995, ethylene dibromide (EDB) was found in Public Water Supply #3 in Selden, KS. Phase I of the remedial design, installed in 1999, had 12 SVE wells screened at different intervals. Initial concentrations of benzene, 1,2-DCA, and EDB in a hot spot well were 2,080, 135, and 115 ug/L, respectively. With treatment, concentrations of EDB and 1,2-DCA decreased 90% or more, but groundwater contamination persisted. In 2007, five new, shallower (top of screen 12 ft below water table) air sparge (AS) wells went on line, replacing existing sparge wells. New SVE wells were also installed. The new sparge wells produced a rapid decrease in concentrations of BTEX, 1,2-DCA, and EDB throughout the area of influence of the remedial system. Longer abstract; Slide presentationAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoLaunch Complex 39A, SWMU 008: Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida
NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. LC39A OMMR, 46 pp, 2016

This report presents the findings, observations, and results from Year 1 operation of the air sparging groundwater interim measure for high-concentration and low-concentration plumes within the perimeter fence line at Launch Complex 39A (LC39A). The objective of the LC39A groundwater IM is to actively decrease concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in groundwater within the pad perimeter fence line to levels less than Florida DEP Groundwater Cleanup Target Levels. This report presents system O&M information from system startup in February 2015 through December 31, 2015, and performance monitoring results for quarterly groundwater sampling events through January 2016.

Adobe PDF LogoLevel 2 Remediation Action Plan, AA Discount, 181 West Kings Highway, Center Hill, Florida
Florida Department of Health, 140 pp, 2018

The 181 West Kings Site is an active petroleum gas and convenience store. A past discharge led to the removal of four 6,000 gal USTs, associated piping, and ~155 tons of surrounding soils in a 1500 ft2 excavation area to a depth of 13 feet. Groundwater sampling results for wells MW-5R and MW-8R in 2014 and MW-5I and MW-8I in 2017 tested positive for BTEX and MTBE. In February 2018, two 8-hour soil vapor extraction and air sparging tests were conducted at the site using mobile, trailer-mounted systems. Results indicated successful remediation and were used to design a system for full-scale remediation.

Adobe PDF LogoInnovative Pulsed Ozone Microdiffusion Sparge Approach For Tetrachloroethylene Remediation At An Arizona State Superfund Site
Craig, K. | Design and Construction Issues at Hazardous Waste Sites Virtual Meeting, 26-28 October, 17 slides, 2020

The East Central Phoenix 24th Street and Grand Canal site is in an urban area with relatively deep depth to groundwater, making implementing an effective remedial approach for PCE in groundwater challenging and expensive. A proprietary specialized five-well ozone sparge pilot system was designed and installed in April 2020 as an aggressive and cost-effective alternative to expedite the site remedial process. The system uses a cyclical injection pressure pulse process incorporating micro-diffusers and specially designed injection wells. The process resulted in an increase in dissolved-phase ozone compared to traditional sparging and a significantly larger radius of influence than was expected. Groundwater monitoring indicated a significant decrease in PCE concentration in the groundwater influenced by the system. The presentation covers the nuances of this remedial approach, challenges that were overcome, the system's effectiveness, and the anticipated path forward for this site and others. Additional site information