U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Electrokinetics: Electric Current Technologies


Chelating Agents for Land Decontamination Technologies
Tsang, D.C.W., I.M.C. Lo Rao, and Y. Surampalli (eds.).
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA. ISBN: 978-0-7844-1218-3, 294 pp, 2012

Chelating agents (or chelants) refer to ligands that can occupy multiple positions in the inner coordination sphere of the central metal ion, leading to the formation of multidentate metal-chelant complexes (or chelates). Chelating agents are able to enhance metal extraction from contaminated soil or sediment and facilitate metal mobility in the subsurface. This book focuses on the engineering applications of chelating agents for soil washing, soil flushing, phytoremediation, and electrokinetic remediation.

Adobe PDF LogoElectrokinetically Enhanced Remediation of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds in Soils: A Review
R.E. Saichek and K.R. Reddy.
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol 35 No 2, p 115-192, 2005.

This lengthy review of previous research efforts on hydrophobic organic compound cleanup and the application of in situ flushing and electrokinetics to remediate organic contaminants is designed to enhance understanding of the individual components and complexities of the electrokinetically enhanced in situ flushing process.

Adobe PDF LogoEmerging Technologies for the Remediation of Metals in Soils: Electrokinetics
1997. Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). MIS-4, 42 pp.

Horizontal Configuration of the Lasagna™ Treatment Technology. User Guide
2002. M.H. Roulier; M.C. Kemper; P.R. Cluxton, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH. EPA 600-R-02-033, NTIS: PB2002-107533, 38 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoResource Guide for Electrokinetics Laboratory and Field Processes Applicable to Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes in Soil and Groundwater from 1992 to 1997
1997. U.S. EPA, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air. EPA 402-R-97-006, 83 pp.

A Review on Techniques to Enhance Electrochemical Remediation of Contaminated Soils
Yeung, A.T. and Y.-Y. Gu.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 195:11-29(2011)

The effectiveness of electrochemical remediation can be llimited by sorption of contaminants on soil particle surfaces and effects induced by hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions generated at the electrodes. Enhancement techniques have been developed to tackle these diminishing effects, and this paper contains a comprehensive review of the various techniques. Longer abstract