U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Ground-Water Circulating Wells


Adobe PDF LogoGroundwater Circulating Well Technology Assessment
1999. W.E. Allmon; L.G. Everett (ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, Santa Barbara, CA); and others. Sponsor: Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). NRL/PU/6115-99-384, 82 pp.

The objective of this report is to document the successes and shortcomings of GCW system performance based on a survey of demonstrations at various Federal and public sites. An additional objective is to document and develop guidelines for the use of the technology and make recommendations for additional data requirements to either support or argue against the use of this method for particular contaminant and hydrogeologic applications.

Technical Protocol for Implementing the Groundwater Circulating Well Technology for Site Remediation, Draft
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, CU-9602-TR-01, 100 pp, 1997

This protocol was written to assist the user in all aspects of implementing the ground-water circulation well (GCW) technology for use at any given site by guiding the user through a process to evaluate the feasibility of using a GCW system; to select the appropriate system configuration; to develop a site-specific design; to install, operate, and monitor the system; and to evaluate system performance.

Applications and Benefits of Groundwater Recirculation for Electron Donor Delivery and pH-Adjustment during Enhanced Anaerobic Dechlorination
Falatko, D.M., S.A. Fam, and G. Pon.
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy 16:77-89(2011)

The proper design and implementation of groundwater recirculation for in situ enhanced anaerobic dechlorination of various chlorinated organic compounds is presented with a review of the applicable concepts.

Delivery and Mixing in the Subsurface: Processes and Design Principles for In Situ Remediation
Kitanidis, P.K. and P.L. McCarty (eds.).
Springer, New York. ISBN: 978-1-4614-2238-9. SERDP-ESTCP Environmental Remediation Technology, Vol. 4, 325 pp, 2012

This technology monograph describes the principles of chemical delivery and mixing systems and their design and implementation for effective in situ remediation. In situ technologies discussed include chemical oxidation, surfactant/cosolvent flushing, subsurface reactors, recirculation systems, PRBs, gas delivery via sparging, and intrinsic remediation in natural-gradient systems. Numerous case studies are provided. Table of contents and abstracts.