U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

In Situ Chemical Reduction

Guidance

Adobe PDF LogoBest Practices for Injection and Distribution of Amendments
Rosansky, S., W. Condit, and R. Sirabian.
TR-NAVFAC-EXWC-EV-1303, 81 pp, 2013

Although there are many reasons for the sub-optimal performance of an in situ technology (e.g., chemical oxidation, chemical reduction, and enhanced bioremediation), a common underlying factor appears to be the inability to achieve adequate distribution and contact between the reagents, substrates, and target contaminants. This document presents current best practices for introducing liquid- and solid-phase amendments into aquifers to improve the likelihood of adequate amendment distribution. Lessons learned from three Navy case studies are provided.

Adobe PDF LogoBiogeochemical Transformation Handbook
Darlington , R. and H. Rectanus.
TR-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1601, 41 pp, 2015

In situ biogeochemical transformation (ISBGT) processes result in the degradation of contaminants through combined biological, mineral, and chemical pathways. This handbook can serve as a key resource in evaluating, selecting, and implementing the ISBGT technology. The handbook presents the fundamentals of ISBGT in a question and answer format; explores the mechanisms that contribute to ISBGT processes; discusses contaminants that can be degraded by ISBGT; identifies key considerations for enhancing, monitoring, and evaluating ISGBT processes; and emphasizes the importance of site characterization in recognizing and accounting for the contributions of ISBGT to natural attenuation.

Adobe PDF LogoEmulsified Zero-Valent Nano-Scale Iron Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Areas
Krug, Thomas et al. 2010
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program ER-200431, 763 pp

The field demonstration/validation (Dem/Val) was conducted at the Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 45 (Site 45) — Former Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) Dry Cleaning Facility, Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, South Carolina. The goal of the program was to evaluate degradation that is occurring due to abiotic and biological components as well as demonstrate the efficacy of EZVI at a scale that is large enough to generate accurate full-scale design and cost information for widespread technology consideration and application at DoD and related sites. This Final Technical Report presents the approach, methodology and results of the EZVI field Dem/Val including a discussion of advantages and limitations.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Chromium. Technical Resource Guide
Cook, K.R., EPA 625-R-00-005, 98 pp, 2000.

The purpose of this report is to bring together the most current (2000) information pertaining to the science of chromium contamination and the in situ treatment and control of sites with groundwater and/or soil contaminated with chromium. A number of available in situ technologies or treatment approaches use chemical reduction and fixation for chromium remediation. These include geochemical fixation, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), and reactive zones. Other types of in situ treatment that are under development include enhanced extraction, electrokinetics, biological processes that can be used within PRBs and reactive zones, natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Detailed discussions of these in situ technologies are contained in the report.

Adobe PDF LogoOrder No. R4-2007-0019: Revised General Waste Discharge Requirements for Groundwater Remediation at Petroleum Hydrocarbon Fuel, Volatile Organic Compound and/or Hexavalent Chromium Impacted Sites
State of California California Regional Water Quality Control Board Los Angeles Region

This document contains a list of materials that can be used for in-situ remediation purposes.

Permeable Reactive Barrier: Technology Update
ITRC. 2011.

While concerned with PRB technology, this document does offer information on ZVI placement and longevity.