U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

For more information on Soil Washing, please contact:

Jim Cummings
Technology Assessment Branch

PH: 202-566-0868 | Email:

Soil Washing


Adobe PDF LogoFinal Implementation Guidance Handbook: Physical Separation and Acid Leaching to Process Small-Arms Range Soils
1997. NTIS: ADA341141, 123 pp.

This handbook provides technical background and guidance for conducting the following activities at outdoor small-arms ranges: 1) Planning and conducting treatability studies of physical separation/acid leaching, 2) determining the effectiveness, implementability, and cost of physical separation/acid leaching, 3) preparing a Statement of Work to obtain competitive quotations for range maintenance/remediation, and 4) managing and implementing range maintenance/remediation.

Fixed Facilities for Soil Washing: a Regulatory Analysis
1997. Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) Metals in Soils Team. 29 pp.

This document discusses issues surrounding the use of fixed facilities for the treatment of contaminated soil and sediment via soil washing technologies. For the purposes of this report, the term 'soil washing' will be used to describe both physical and chemical separation processes, including solvent extraction.

Adobe PDF LogoInnovative Site Remediation Technologies: Design and Application, Vol. 3: Liquid Extraction Technologies Soil Washing, Soil Flushing, Solvent/Chemical
1998. M.J. Mann, et al. American Academy of Environmental Engineers, Annapolis, MD. ISBN: 1-883767-19-9, 432 pp.

The Innovative Site Remediation Technology series was prepared by WASTECH , a multiorganization cooperative project managed by the American Academy of Environmental Engineers with grant assistance from the U.S. EPA, DoD, and DOE. This book describes the design, application, and implementation of soil washing, soil flushing, and chemical extraction technologies for metals and organics.

Adobe PDF LogoSoil Washing Through Separation/ Solubilization: Guide Specification for Construction
2006. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. CEGS-02 54 23, 35 pp.

This guide specification covers the requirements for removal of heavy metals, inorganics, organics, and radioactive wastes by water-based soil washing. It should be modified as necessary for a given site to incorporate the conditions, soil washing technology, and regulatory requirements that are specific to the site.

Adobe PDF LogoTechnical and Regulatory Guidelines for Soil Washing
1997. Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) Metals in Soils Team. 40 pp.

Chelating Agents for Land Decontamination Technologies
Tsang, D.C.W., I.M.C. Lo Rao, and Y. Surampalli (eds.).
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA. ISBN: 978-0-7844-1218-3, 294 pp, 2012

Chelating agents (or chelants) refer to ligands that can occupy multiple positions in the inner coordination sphere of the central metal ion, leading to the formation of multidentate metal-chelant complexes (or chelates). Chelating agents are able to enhance metal extraction from contaminated soil or sediment and facilitate metal mobility in the subsurface. This book focuses on the engineering applications of chelating agents for soil washing, soil flushing, phytoremediation, and electrokinetic remediation. Table of Contents

Treatability Bulletin: Soil Washing
CL:AIRE (Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments), 2011

CL:AIRE Treatability Bulletins describe the key factors to be considered in the early stages of designing a remediation project. Treatability studies provide a means of determining, through laboratory- or pilot-scale tests, the practicability and likely effectiveness of remediation, and can be an essential part of a remediation options appraisal.

Mineral Processing Technologies for the Remediation of Soils Polluted by Trace Elements
Boente, C., C. Sierra, E. Rodriguez-Valdes, D. Baragano, J.L. Rodriguez Gallego, et. al.
Proceedings 2(23):1458(2018)

Soils affected by heavy metals as a result of mining, metallurgical, and industrial activities were evaluated and given soil washing treatment at pilot scale to support the elaboration of a general feasibility protocol for pilot-scale soil washing studies.