U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

In situ chemical reduction


Adobe PDF LogoEmulsified Zero-Valent Nano-Scale Iron Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Areas
Krug, Thomas et al. 2010
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program ER-200431, 763 pp

The field demonstration/validation (Dem/Val) was conducted at the Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 45 (Site 45) — Former Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) Dry Cleaning Facility, Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, South Carolina. The goal of the program was to evaluate degradation that is occurring due to abiotic and biological components as well as demonstrate the efficacy of EZVI at a scale that is large enough to generate accurate full-scale design and cost information for widespread technology consideration and application at DoD and related sites. This Final Technical Report presents the approach, methodology and results of the EZVI field Dem/Val including a discussion of advantages and limitations.

Permeable Reactive Barrier: Technology Update
ITRC. 2011.

While concerned with PRB technology, this document does offer information on ZVI placement and longevity.

Adobe PDF LogoOrder No. R4-2007-0019: Revised General Waste Discharge Requirements for Groundwater Remediation at Petroleum Hydrocarbon Fuel, Volatile Organic Compound and/or Hexavalent Chromium Impacted Sites
State of California California Regional Water Quality Control Board Los Angeles Region

This document contains a list of materials that can be used for in-situ remediation purposes.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Chromium. Technical Resource Guide
Cook, K.R., EPA 625-R-00-005, 98 pp, 2000.

The purpose of this report is to bring together the most current (2000) information pertaining to the science of chromium contamination and the in situ treatment and control of sites with groundwater and/or soil contaminated with chromium. A number of available in situ technologies or treatment approaches use chemical reduction and fixation for chromium remediation. These include geochemical fixation, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), and reactive zones. Other types of in situ treatment that are under development include enhanced extraction, electrokinetics, biological processes that can be used within PRBs and reactive zones, natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Detailed discussions of these in situ technologies are contained in the report.

Adobe PDF LogoBest Practices for Injection and Distribution of Amendments
Rosansky, S., W. Condit, and R. Sirabian.
TR-NAVFAC-EXWC-EV-1303, 81 pp, 2013

Although there are many reasons for the sub-optimal performance of an in situ technology (e.g., chemical oxidation, chemical reduction, and enhanced bioremediation), a common underlying factor appears to be the inability to achieve adequate distribution and contact between the reagents, substrates, and target contaminants. This document presents current best practices for introducing liquid- and solid-phase amendments into aquifers to improve the likelihood of adequate amendment distribution. Lessons learned from three Navy case studies are provided.

Adobe PDF LogoBiogeochemical Transformation Handbook
Darlington , R. and H. Rectanus.
TR-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1601, 41 pp, 2015

In situ biogeochemical transformation (ISBGT) processes result in the degradation of contaminants through combined biological, mineral, and chemical pathways. This handbook can serve as a key resource in evaluating, selecting, and implementing the ISBGT technology. The handbook presents the fundamentals of ISBGT in a question and answer format; explores the mechanisms that contribute to ISBGT processes; discusses contaminants that can be degraded by ISBGT; identifies key considerations for enhancing, monitoring, and evaluating ISGBT processes; and emphasizes the importance of site characterization in recognizing and accounting for the contributions of ISBGT to natural attenuation.

In Situ Treatment Performance Monitoring: Issues and Best Practices
EPA 542-F-18-002, 2018

The purpose of this issue paper is to describe how in situ treatment technologies may impact sampling and analysis results used to monitor treatment performance and provide best practices to identify and mitigate issues that may affect sampling or analysis. This paper discusses eight potential sampling or analytical issues associated with groundwater monitoring at sites where in situ treatment technologies are applied. These issues are grouped under three topic areas: Issues related to monitoring wells (Section 2); Representativeness of monitoring wells (Section 3); Post-sampling artifacts (Section 4).

Adobe PDF LogoHorizontal Remediation Wells
Appendix A in How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers
EPA 510-B-17-003, 47 pp, 2017

Horizontal directional drilling can be used to install horizontal remediation wells (HRWs) at cleanup sites. The technology uses specialized equipment to produce either a curved surface-to-surface well or a blind well. HRWs are able to access locations beneath surface obstructions and to place long well screens in contact with the contaminated area. The wells can be thousands of feet long, with hundreds of feet of well screen. The potential for HRWs to complement a site remedy is described with reference to air sparging, bioremediation, chemical injection, soil vapor extraction, hot air or steam injection, LNAPL removal, plume containment, injection of treated water, and sampling. A detailed overview is provided of equipment and procedures for drilling a horizontal remediation well. Additional information: The complete UST CAP review manual

Optimizing Injection Strategies and In Situ Remediation Performance
The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council Optimizing Injection Strategies and In Situ Remediation Performance Team. Report No. OIS-ISRP-1, 180 pp, 2020

This guidance describes how treatment ineffectiveness can be avoided through effective upfront characterization and design. It also provides the state of the practice based on firsthand knowledge and experiences for a broad audience, including environmental consultants, responsible parties, federal and state regulators, and community and tribal stakeholders. The document is divided into sections including remedial design characterization; amendment, dose and delivery design; implementation and feedback optimization, regulatory perspectives, community and tribal stakeholder considerations, and case studies.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Chemical Reduction: State-Of-The Practice And New Advances
NAVFAC Engineering & Expeditionary Warfare Center, 12 pp, 2020

NAVFAC issued this fact sheet to describe the state-of-the-practice and new in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) advances. It focuses primarily on applying zero-valent iron [ZVI] to treat chlorinated solvents.