U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

For more information on 1,4-Dioxane, please contact:

Linda Fiedler
Technology Assessment Branch

PH: (703) 603-7194 | Email: fiedler.linda@epa.gov


Policy and Guidance

EPA regulates 1,4-dioxane under the Clean Air Act (CAA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). EPA has set control technology standards for emissions of 1,4-dioxane, and a reportable quantity of 100 pounds has been established under CERCLA. 1,4-Dioxane is exempted from tolerances for pesticide chemicals in or on raw agricultural commodities, and it has been classified as a toxic inert ingredient of pesticide products. RCRA subjects 1,4-dioxane wastes to reporting and record-keeping requirements, and SARA lists it as a toxic chemical and sets general threshold amounts for producing and using 1,4-dioxane at a facility.

FDA regulates 1,4-dioxane under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act as an indirect food additive when it is used as an adhesive component in packaging materials. FDA is surveying raw materials and products contaminated with 1,4-dioxane.

OSHA and NIOSH have established various exposure limits for 1,4-dioxane. OSHA has set a permissible exposure limit for 1,4-dioxane in the workplace and also regulates it under the Hazard Communication Standard and as a chemical hazard in laboratories.

Cleanup standards for 1,4-dioxane and other solvent stabilizers have not been widely established for solvent release sites. Where standards have been established, target concentrations vary by state and by site. If a contaminant is detected that does not have established Maximum Contaminant Levels or Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, as is the case with 1,4-dioxane, EPA will evaluate available standards and information, such as California Department of Health Services drinking water action levels, to identify a relevant and appropriate standard for the contaminant. U.S. EPA Region 9 has posted screening criteria for preliminary remediation goals for 1, 4-dioxane. Some of the states list concentrations for guidelines and health advisories, as indicated below in a sampling of state guidance.

Adapted from:

Adobe PDF Logo1,4-Dioxane, CAS No. 123-91-1, Report on Carcinogens, 14th Ed.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011.

Adobe PDF LogoSolvent Stabilizers: White Paper
T.K.G. Mohr, Santa Clara Valley Water District, 2001.
Contact: Tom Mohr, tommohr@scvwd.dst.ca.us

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Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Dioxane
U.S. Dept. of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 1999.


World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 7 pp, 2003.

1,4-Dioxane: Work in Progress and Drafts for the Ongoing Revision of the Guidelines
World Health Organization, 2004.


DHS' Drinking Water Notification Levels
California Department of Health Services, 2003.

Ground Water Quality Standards
State of New Jersey, Department of Environmental Protection.

Groundwater Remediation Objectives for Chemicals Not Listed in TACO
State of Illinois, Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, 5 pp, 2003.

Adobe PDF LogoGuidance for Ecological Risk Assessment: Level II Screening Level Values
State of Oregon, Department of Environmental Quality.

Adobe PDF LogoMassachusetts Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines for Chemicals in Massachusetts Drinking Waters
Nicholas Anastas.
State of Massachusetts, Department of Environmental Protection

Adobe PDF LogoScreening Levels for General NPDES Permits
State of California, State Water Resources Control Board.