U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

Thermal Processes: In Situ

Conductive Heating

Multi-Component Waste


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General Resources: Coal Tar | Case Studies: Coal Tar | Case Studies: Creosote

General Resources: Coal Tar

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Thermal Desorption Of Coal Tar
K.S. Hansen, D.M. Conley, H.J. Vinegar, J.M. Coles, J.L. Menotti, and G.L. Stegemeier.
IGT/GRI International Symposium on Environmental Biotechnologies and Site Remediation Technologies, Orlando, Florida, December 7-9, 1998, 22 pp.

Discusses a series of treatability experiments to show that electrical conductance is a viable treatment technology for coal tars.

Case Studies: Coal Tar

Adobe PDF LogoFormer Manufactured Gas Plant, North Adams, Massachusetts
Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable Cost and Performance Database, 2003

An abandoned subsurface gas holder that contained approximately 2,000 cubic yards of soil, debris, and coal tar was the object of the cleanup. The gasholder structure is about 62 ft in diameter and 18 ft deep. The contaminants of concern are those associated with coal tar, specifically benzo(a)pyrene (650 mg/kg), naphthalene (14,000 mg/kg), benzene (6,200 mg/kg), and TPH (230,000 mg/kg). Intermediate heating recovered 16,000 gallons of coal tar. Full heating brought average concentrations of all constituents of concern below the Massachusetts upper concentration limits. Examples of final averages are benzo(a)pyrene (0.33 mg/kg), naphthalene (5.7 mg/kg), and TPH 43.15 mg/kg. The site was closed with no further action.

Adobe PDF LogoIn-Situ Thermal Destruction (ISTD) of MGP Waste in a Former Gasholder: Design and Installation
R.S. Baker, J. LaChance, M.W. Kresge, R.J. Bukowski, J.P. Galligan, K. Parker, C.M. Duteau, M. Kuhlman, and E.H. White.
The Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, and Water, Amherst, MA 2004

Provides a general discussion of electrical conductive heating and how it was applied to coal tars contained in an abandoned MGP gas holder. It expands upon the preceding North Adams, MA, paper.

Case Studies: Creosote

Full-Scale Phase 1a Results of ISTD Remediation at Former Alhambra, California Wood Treatment Site
J.M. Bierschenk, R.S. Baker, R.J. Bukowski, K. Parker, R. Young, J. King, T. Landler, and D. Sheppard.
Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 24-27, 2004. Battelle, Columbus, OH.

Discusses the use of electrical conductance heating at a wood treatment facility for utility poles that operated from 1921 to 1957. Approximately 16,200 cubic yards of predominantly silty soil required treatment to depths of 100 ft. The remediation goal was unrestricted future land use. Longer Abstract

Adobe PDF LogoCompletion of In-Situ Thermal Remediation of PAHs, PCP and Dioxins at a Former Wood Treatment Facility
R.S. Baker, D. Tarmasiewicz, J.M. Bierschenk, J. King, T. Landler, and D. Sheppard.
International Conference on Incinerators and Thermal Treatment Technologies, May 14-18, 2007, Phoenix, AZ

Discusses the completion of full-scale conductance heating at a creosote site in Alhambra, CA. Approximately 16,200 cubic yards of predominantly silty soil was treated to a maximum depth of 105 ft. 785 thermal wells, including 654 heater only and 131 heater-vacuum wells, were installed on 7-foot spacing. The heating goal for interwell temperatures was 570°F sustained for 30 days. The remedial action objectives were met and a no further action letter was issued by the state regulatory agency.