U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

In Situ Oxidation

Halogenated Alkanes


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Bromoform | Bromochloromethane | Dibromochloromethane | Bromodichloromethane | Methylene Chloride | Chloroform | Carbon Tetrachloride | Trichlorofluoromethane | Ethylene Dibromide | 1,1-Dichloroethane | 1,2-Dichloroethane | 1,1,1-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane | 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane | 1,2-Dichloropropane | References

Bromoform

The compound is oxidized by Fenton's reagent (Tang and Tassos 1997), but no information was found regarding other agents used for in situ oxidation.

Bromochloromethane

No examples of treating BCM with in situ oxidation were found; however, if it behaves similarly to dichloromethane (methylene chloride), it might be amenable to oxidation by Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide, and activated sulfate, but poorly reactive with ozone and permanganate (Huling and Pivetz 2006).

Dibromochloromethane

DBCM was oxidized by Fenton's reagent (Tang and Tassos 1997), but no information was found regarding the effect of other in situ chemical oxidation technologies.

Bromodichloromethane

A review of the literature suggests that with the possible exception of heat- or alkaline-activated persulfate, BDCM degrades reluctantly in the presence of agents commonly used for in situ oxidation.

Methylene Chloride

MC generally is amenable to in situ oxidation by Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide, and activated sulfate, but appears to be poorly reactive with permanganate and ozone (Huling and Pivetz 2006).

Chloroform

Hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent, ozone, sodium/potassium permanganate, and iron-activated persulfate are not effective for remediation of chloroform via in situ oxidation, but persulfate activated by heat or under very alkaline conditions is effective in destroying this chemical (ITRC 2005).

Carbon Tetrachloride

The compound generally is very reluctant to recalcitrant to in situ oxidation by Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide, permanganate, ozone, and iron-activated sulfate (Huling and Pivetz 2006), but it might be treatable with heat-activated persulfate (Huling and Pivetz 2006, ITRC 2005) or base activated persulfate (Root et al. 2005).

Trichlorofluoromethane

A review of the literature suggests that with the possible exception of heat- or alkaline-activated persulfate, TCFM will degrade reluctantly in the presence of compounds commonly used for in situ chemical oxidation (ITRC 2001 and 2005b).

Ethylene Dibromide

EDB is expected to behave similarly to 1,2-dichloroethane; therefore, in situ oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent, sodium/potassium permanganate, and iron activated persulfate generally is ineffective (Huling and Pivetz 2006). Heat- or alkaline-activated (pH>10.5) persulfate, however, should be effective (ITRC 2005).

1,1-Dichloroethane

In situ chemical oxidation by sodium/potassium permanganate is not effective for 1,1,-DCA, and hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent, and iron-activated persulfate are only moderately effective (Huling and Pivetz 2006). Thermally activated persulfate might provide effective treatment, but no example was found, whereas the effectiveness of alkaline activation of persulfate for 1,1-DCA has been demonstrated (Bost and Perry 2008).

1,2-Dichloroethane

A review of the literature concerning in situ oxidation of this compound suggests that with the possible exception of activated persulfate, 1,2-DCA degrades reluctantly in the presence of common oxidants (Huling and Pivetz 2006, ITRC 2005).

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

In situ oxidation by sodium/potassium permanganate, and iron-activated persulfate generally is not effective for 1,1,1-TCA (Huling and Pivetz 2006); however, thermally activated persulfate might treat this chemical (Liang et al. 2003), as will alkaline activated persulfate, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton's reagent (ITRC 2005).

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

1,1,2-TCA generally is amenable to in situ oxidation by activated sulfate but appears to be poorly reactive with permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone (Huling and Pivetz 2006). Fenton's reagent, under some circumstances and properly modified, can be used to destroy 1,1,2-TCA (Watts et al. 2006)

1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane

This chemical generally is amenable to in situ oxidation by activated persulfate, but appears to be poorly reactive with permanganate, Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone (Huling and Pivetz 2006).

1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane

Hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent, ozone, and sodium/potassium permanganate generally are not effective for in situ oxidation of highly chlorinated ethanes (Huling and Pivetz 2006), and by analogy, they probably will not be effective for TCTFE. Heat- or alkaline-activated persulfate might be effective, but no peer-reviewed examples were found.

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

DBCP may react like other halogenated alkanes to in situ oxidation. Halogenated alkanes generally are amenable to in situ oxidation by heat-activated persulfate, but they react poorly with permanganate, Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone (Huling and Pivetz 2006).

1,2-Dichloropropane

This chemical generally is amenable to in situ oxidation by activated persulfate, but appears to be poorly reactive with permanganate, Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone (Huling and Pivetz 2006).

References

Oxidation Kinetics and Mechanisms of Trihalomethanes by Fenton's Reagent
Tang, W.Z. and S. Tassos.
Water Research 31(5):1117-1125(1997)
View abstract

Technical and Regulatory Guidance for in Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater, Second EditionAdobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), ISCO-2, 171 pp, 2005

Engineering Issue Paper: In Situ Chemical OxidationAdobe PDF Logo
Huling, S.G. and B.E. Pivetz.
EPA 600-R-06-072, 60 pp, 2006

Adobe PDF LogoInvestigation of Chlorinated Methanes Treatability Using Activated Sodium Persulfate
Root, Duane et al.
Proceedings of the First International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, 6 pp, 2005

This paper examines the reactivity of persulfate with chlorinated methanes using various activation mechanisms.

Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Soils at a Mixed Waste Site and Assessment of Effects on Ground Water Quality.
Bost, R.C. and R.G. Perry.
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy 13:Article 11(2008) View abstract

Thermally Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) in Aqueous Systems and Soil Slurries
Liang, C.J., C.J.ui Bruell, M.C. Marley, and K.L. Sperry.
Soil and Sediment Contamination 12(2):207-228(2003)
View abstract
View slidesAdobe PDF Logo

Improved Understanding of Fenton-Like Reactions for the In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Including Treatment of Sorbed Contaminants and Destruction of DNAPLsAdobe PDF Logo
Watts, R.J., F.J. Loge, and A.L. Teel.
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Project CU-1288, 276 pp, 2006

Modification of the Fenton's reagent process can improve the destruction of chlorinated alkenes and allow the destruction of chlorinated alkanes that otherwise might not be treatable.