U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Additional Resources

Literature References

Investigations of Chlorinated Solvents Bibliography
This U.S. Geological Survey webpage has an extensive listing of published articles on topics related to or concerning DNAPLs.

Monitoring and Measurement in the 21st Century Initiative
This website, which is dedicated to detection and characterization techniques, has a searchable database of over 6,000 literature abstracts. DNAPLs are a project area of concern.

Work Groups

Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Consortium

The Consortium is one of seven Action Teams of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF). It was established in May 1993, when representatives from various companies, universities, EPA, DoD, and DOE met to discuss their mutual interest in developing in situ bioremediation technologies to degrade chlorinated solvents in soils and ground water. The historical information concerning the consortium is available through the RTDF home page.

In 2004, the RTDF - Bioremediation Consortium initiated Phase III of its research activities when it joined forces with a multinational team to launch the In Situ Source Area Bioremediation project (SABRE). This project, which is being conducted in the United Kingdom, is scheduled to be completed in 2008 and has a budget of nearly $6 million, financed by industrial members and the DTI LINK Bioremediation program in the UK. The goal is to demonstrate the efficacy of accelerated anaerobic bioremediation as a treatment alternative for source areas contaminated with chlorinated solvent dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The SABRE project team comprises: Archon Environmental; British Geological Survey (BGS); Celanese Acetate; Chevron; CL:AIRE; DuPont; ESI; GE; Geosyntec Consultants, Inc.; Golder Associates; Honeywell; ICI; Scientifics; SERDP; Shell; SiREM; Terra Systems, Inc; University of Edinburgh; and University of Sheffield. The Environment Agency (EA) of England and Wales and US EPA are also included. In addition, the University of Birmingham and BGS are conducting a complimentary research project (Streamtube) in the SABRE test cell. The project has completed initial characterization of DNAPL source zones, a laboratory microcosm study, installation of the test cell, and baseline data collection. Column studies are well advanced, and modelling is occurring throughout the project. Biostimulation and bioaugmentation of the test cell occurred in the Spring of 2007.

ITRC Bioremediation of DNAPLs Team
Naji Akladiss
Dept. of Environmental Protection
17 State House Station
Augusta, ME 04333-0017
P 207-287-7709 / F 207-287-7826

Bill Morris
Dept. of Health and Environment
1000 SW Jackson
Suite 410
Topeka, KS 66620-1367
P 785-296-8425 / F 785-296-1686

The ITRC BioDNAPL Team is developing a technical and regulatory guidance document for bioremediation of DNAPLs associated with chlorinated solvents that will be completed in early 2008. The guidance focuses on the scientific and engineering challenges with DNAPL remediation as well as regulatory concerns. An associated internet training on the guidance document will be available in 2008. The ITRC BioDNAPL team is also tracking the development, demonstration, and deployment of this new technology for remediating DNAPLs. Future topics to be covered by team products include microbial ecology, DNA typing of bacteria, and microbiological assays—topics unique to microbiology and bioremediation.


Dense Chlorinated Solvents and other DNAPLs in Groundwater: History, Behavior, and Remediation
Pankow, J., and J. Cherry.
Waterloo Press, 522pp, 1996

Geophysical methods offer hydrogeologists unprecedented access to understanding subsurface parameters and processes. In this book, we outline the theory and application of electrical imaging methods, which inject current into the ground and measure the resultant potentials. These data are sensitive to rock type, grain size, porosity, pore fluid electrical conductivity, saturation, and temperature. Here, we describe the physical basis for electrical imaging, parallels between electrical flow equations and the groundwater flow equation, practical considerations for field investigations, data processing and inverse modeling of field data, and how to QA/QC data. We additionally cover two case studies, including a 2-D waterborne survey and a 4-D dataset from a biostimulation experiment.

Web Sites

Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable: Cost and Performance
This website allows searching by technology, media, or chemical for cost and performance case studies. Included in the chemicals of interest are dichloroethene, polychlorinated biphenyls, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene.

Naval Facilities Engineering Command Environmental Focus
This page covers a wide range of environmental topics, including DNAPLs.

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners
This website provides discussions on characterization and cleanup approaches for drycleaner sites, most of which are contaminated with perchloroethene. There are over 130 case studies with costing and contact information.

Triad Resource Center
This website provides information on the Triad approach to characterization and remediation of environmentally contaminated sites. Triad consists of systematic planning, dynamic work strategies, and real-time measurement systems. This approach has definite application and value to DNAPL sites. Case studies that involve DNAPLs are provided.

Multimedia Resources

CLU-IN Archived Internet Seminars
CLU-IN archived Internet Seminars are two-hour web-based slide presentations with a companion audio portion. Below are past seminars on DNAPL topics. Check the website for future seminar dates.

Tools for Management of Chlorinated Solvent-Contaminated Sites
This on-demand video presented in December 2009 provides training on the use and implementation of four recently developed decision and management tools for DNAPL source zones—(1) a screening tool for selection of DNAPL source area remedial technologies; (2) a decision tool for optimization of chlorinated solvent source and plume remediation considering uncertainty; (3) a design tool for planning aqueous amendment injection systems; and (4) a tool for using multiple lines of evidence in conjunction with source zone models to assess changes in mass discharge.

Software Packages and Online Tools

CLU-IN Software and Tools
CLU-IN's Software Packages and Online Tools area offers information on individual software packages and online tools to assist visitors as well as links to other sources of free software and tools.

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