U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Chemistry and Behavior

Halogenated Alkenes

cis 1,3-Dichloropropene

cis 1,3-dichloropropylenecis 1,3-Dichloropropene (cis-DCP, CAS # 542-75-6) is a volatile and flammable chemical. However, it is heavier than air, and therefore its vapors tend to collect in low areas after a spill. Montgomery and Welkom (1991) estimate the log Koc of cis-DCP at 1.68, the Kow at 1.41, and the Henry's constant at 0.0013 atm-m3/mole. The solubility of cis-DCP ranges from 2,000 mg/L at 20° C to 2,700 mg/L at 25° C (ATSDR 2006) and its specific gravity is 1.22 (20° C). The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has developed a draft Toxicological Profile for 1,3-Dichloropropene that contains a useful summary tableAdobe PDF Logo of the physical properties of dichloropropenes.

The low calculated Koc value for cis-DCP in soil indicates that it is likely to move quickly through soil and sediment.

The relatively high Henry's constant indicates a propensity for cis-DCP to volatilize out of water. This property has two implications for environmental remediation. When cis-DCP is in a dissolved-phase ground water plume that discharges into a moving body of water, it is very likely to volatilize relatively quickly. Information on TOXNET suggests that the half life of DCP in a one-meter deep river is about three hours and in a lake, the half life is about four days. The second implication is that cis-DCP's volatilization properties and its vulnerability to aerobic biodegradation may make it very susceptible to cleanup using air sparging technology when subsurface conditions permit.

Because of its low Kow, bioaccumulation is not expected to occur to any significant extent. cis-DCP can be degraded by microbial action under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and is subject to degradation by hydrolysis. It is more easily degraded under anaerobic conditions. ATSDR 2006Adobe PDF Logo has an extensive section on DCP degradation rates and by-products.

When released to the atmosphere, hydroxyl radicals are expected to degrade cis-DCP with a half life of two days. In the presence of sunlight and hydroxl radicals, this time is reduced to seven to twelve hours. (TOXNET Hazardous Substances Database).

1,3-DCP is reactive with aluminum, magnesium, halogens, oxidizers (epichlorohydrin may be added as a stabilizer). The NIOSH Pocket Guide to Hazardous Chemicals contains more information on the chemical physical properties of 1, 3-DCPs.

For Further Information

Adobe PDF LogoDraft Toxicological Profile for Dichloropropenes
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services, 2006, 365 pp

This profile provides information on human health effects, fate and transport, production, and uses of DCP.

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Hazardous Chemicals
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health

This guide contains information on the chemical physical properties of DCPs and their physical hazards.

Groundwater Chemicals Desk Reference
Montgomery, J. and L. Welkom.
Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 1991, 640 pp

This book provides a summary of physical and chemical properties of a variety of chemicals including cis-DCP.

TOXNET
The National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health

TOXNET is a comprehensive compendium of information on a variety of chemicals, but it is often dated.