U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division


Treatment Technologies

Roasting/retorting and incineration are thermal techniques and the most commonly used for treating mercury-contaminated waste. Roasting/retorting operations separate the mercury from the rest of the waste stream and condense it for recovery or removal. Because the control of mercury emissions from incinerators is difficult, alternative technologies are sought that either recycle the mercury in the wastes, separate the mercury from the organics prior to incineration of the organics, or produce a stable residue for disposal that reduces the risks attributed to the organic and mercury constituents. The treatment approach depends on the type of waste being treated, and may require the use of a series of technologies.

Mercury cannot be destroyed, so treaters have to rely on various methods to capture or recover it, depending on the mercury species present, its concentration, and the waste matrix or media involved. Selecting the appropriate treatment formula depends on the degree of organic destruction required prior to further mercury treatment, the degree of mercury speciation control required by the waste form, and other operating procedures to ensure mercury extraction. The final treatment step in non-thermal processes for mercury wastes generally involves either precipitation to produce a waste that can be retorted or immobilization prior to disposal.

Chemical oxidation is applied to elemental mercury and organomercury compounds to destroy the organics and to convert mercury to a soluble form, such as HgCl2 or HgI2, which can then be separated from the waste matrix and treated. Oxidizing reagents used in these processes include sodium hypochlorite, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine (gas), and proprietary reagents.

Chemical leaching is an aqueous process that depends on the ability of a leaching solution to solubilize mercury and remove it from the waste matrix. The solubilized mercury ideally partitions to the liquid phase, which is filtered off for further treatment (e.g., precipitation, ion exchange, carbon adsorption). This process can remove inorganic forms of mercury from inorganic waste matrices, but it is less effective for removing nonreactive elemental mercury unless the leaching formula is capable of ionizing mercury to an extractable form. Acid leaching is used most commonly to remove mercury from inorganic media.

Chemical precipitation of mercury requires that the mercury be in an ionic state (e.g., Hg2+), which means that all organic content has been removed. Precipitation reagents include lye, caustic, sodium sulfide, and, to a lesser extent, soda ash, phosphate, and ferrous sulfide.

Ion exchange resins have proven useful in removing mercury from aqueous media, particularly at concentrations on the order of 1 to 10 ppb. Ion exchange applications usually treat mercuric salts, such as mercuric chlorides. In other applications of resins, the resins can be cleaned (regenerated) and reused, but Hg is not readily removed; if a selective resin is used, the adsorption process is usually irreversible and the resin must be disposed of in a hazardous waste unit.

Solidification/stabilization(S/S) processes are nondestructive methods to immobilize the hazardous constituents in a matrix while decreasing the waste surface area and permeability. Conventional S/S agents include Type 1 Portland cement, lime, and fly ash, though more innovative forms also are available. The encapsulation process temperatures may volatilize mercury, so the mercury vapor and oxide that forms must be captured and recycled in the process.

Amalgamation typically involves the mixing of elemental mercury with a powdered granular metal (typically zinc), forming a non-liquid, semi-solid matrix of elemental mercury and the metal.

Other technologies being studied or developed for mercury remediation include thermal processes that mobilize the mercury for capture as vapor, electrokinetics, and phytoremediation.

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General Overview Reports | Biological Methods | Physical/Chemical Methods | Thermal Processes | Site-Specific Information | Literature References

General Overview Reports

Adobe PDF LogoAnalysis of Alternatives to Incineration for Mercury Wastes Containing Organics
U.S. EPA. 60 pp., 1998.

The alternatives considered include chemical oxidation, chemical leaching, chemical precipitation, and ion exchange.

Adobe PDF LogoCapsule Report: Aqueous Mercury Treatment
U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development. EPA 625-R-97-004, 38 pp., 1997.
Contact: Edwin Barth,

Methods for treating aqueous mercury discussed in this report include activated carbon adsorption, precipitation, coagulation/co-precipitation, ion exchange, chemical reduction, membrane separation, as well as emerging technologies involving macrocycles adsorption, biological treatment, and membrane extraction.

Adobe PDF LogoDemonstration of New Technologies Required for the Treatment of Mixed Waste Contaminated with >260 ppm Mercury
Michael I. Morris, Irvin W. Osborne-Lee, Greg A. Hulet
ORNL/TM-2001/147, 82 pp., Jan 2002.

This report describes the results of four vendor demonstrations of new mercury cleanup technologies: Brookhaven National Laboratory offered a sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification process; Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) presented the DeHg (de-merk) stabilization process; Allied Technology Group introduced a chemical stabilization treatment; and SepraDyne-Raduce demonstrated a vacuum thermal desorption technology.

Adobe PDF LogoEconomic and Environmental Analysis of Technologies to Treat Mercury and Dispose in a Waste Containment Facility
G.D. Kaiser, J. Skibinski, W. Toman, J. Vierow, B. Dykema, and E. Ten Siethoff.
EPA 600-R-05-157, 213 pp, Apr 2005.

This analysis considers three treatment technologies that convert elemental mercury into a stable form of mercury. The report is restricted to the treatment and disposal or long-term storage of elemental mercury and does not consider the treatment and disposal of mercury-containing wastes or radioactive mercury.

Adobe PDF LogoEngineering Bulletin: Technology Alternatives for Remediation of Soils Contaminated with As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb
U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development.
EPA 540-S-97-500, 21 pp., 1997.
Contact: Michael Royer,

This paper discusses the following remediation technologies: immobilization [containment (caps, vertical barriers, horizontal barriers), solidification/stabilization (cement-based, polymer microencapsulation), and vitrification]; and separation and concentration (soil washing, pyrometallurgy, and soil flushing). Use of treatment trains is addressed also.

Adobe PDF LogoInnovative Approaches to Mercury Contamination in Soil
U.S. DOE and Polish Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas JCCES FY01 Annual Report.
WSRC-RP-2002-00142, Chapter VI, p. 1-32, 2002.

This report presents results of a DOE-sponsored project carried out by Florida State University and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU), Katowice, Poland. The IETU is evaluating several potential approaches for managing mercury contamination in soil. The technologies addressed in this manuscript include chemical/plant stabilization and volatilization.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Remediation and Stabilization Technologies for Mercury in Clay Soils
Cabrejo, Elsa (DOE Fellow), Florida International Univ.
DOE-FIU Science & Technology Workforce Development Program, Student Summer Internship Technical Report ARC-2007-D2540-032-04, 31 pp, 2010

This paper discusses innovative in situ remediation technologies for the treatment and/or stabilization of mercury-contaminated clay soil. The 4 alternatives—electrochemical remediation, in situ mercury stabilization, nanotechnology, and phytoextraction--have the common advantages of low energy requirements, low cost, no excavation, no addition of harmful chemicals, and minimal exposure of workers and the public to the contaminant during operations.

Adobe PDF LogoManagement of Mercury Pollution in Sediments: Research, Observations, and Lessons Learned (DRAFT)
U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory. 87 pp, 2006

This report discusses the most common methods used for remediating contaminated sediments in relation to the chemistry of mercury and its effect on the sorption of mercury on sediment. Three detailed case studies are presented: remediation efforts at Lavaca Bay, TX; management of mercury in Onandoga Lake in Syracuse, NY; and remediation and monitoring of mercury-contaminated sediments in Lake Turingen, Sweden.

Adobe PDF LogoMercury Contaminated Material Decontamination Methods: Investigation and Assessment
M.A. Ebadian, Marshall Allen, and Yong Cai.
FG21-95EW55094-02, NTIS: DE00790964, 73 pp., 2001.
Contact: M.A. Ebadian, Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174

This report reviews technologies for removing mercury from surfaces, water, and mixed wastes (solid media). Surface methods: strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization. In liquids: precipitation processes (sulfide precipitation, coagulation/co-precipitation), adsorption processes (e.g., activated carbon adsorption), ion exchange, chemical reduction, membrane separation, membrane extraction, Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS), and graft copolymer of acrylamide onto cellulose. In solid media: separation/removal (thermal treatment processes and chemical leaching), immobilization, stabilization, and amalgamation.

Mercury Contaminated Sediment Sites: An Evaluation of Remedial Options
Randall, P.M. and S. Chattopadhyay.
Environmental Research 125:131-149(2013)

This review discusses remedial considerations (e.g., key chemical factors in fate and transport of Hg, source characterization and control, environmental management procedures, remediation options, and modeling tools) and includes practical case studies for cleaning up Hg-contaminated sediment sites. Case studies include characterization, assessment, and remediation efforts made at Lavaca Bay, Texas; Onondaga Lake in Syracuse, New York; Lake Turingen, Sweden; Sulphur Banks Mercury Mine near Clear Lake, California; a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in the Southeastern U.S.; and other characterization and assessment efforts at the Nura River and Lake Balkyldak in Kazakhstan. Longer abstract

Mercury Contaminated Sites: Characterization, Risk Assessment and Remediation
Ebinghaus, R.; W. Salomons; R.R Turner; L.D. de Lacerda; O. Vasiliev (eds.)
Springer, Berlin. 555 pp., 1998.

Unlike other metals, which generally are not very volatile, mercury from contaminated sites can have a significant impact on remote ecosystems via the atmospheric pathway. This book summarizes work on mercury characterization, risk assessment and remediation from Europe, Russia, and the American continent. Technology review chapters are supplemented by detailed international case studies.

Adobe PDF LogoProven Technologies and Remedies Guidance: Remediation of Metals in Soil
Burger, K., P. Carpenter, M. Finch, H. Muniz-Ghazi, D. Oudiz, K. Shaddy, and J. Sotelo.
California Department of Toxic Substances Control, 420 pp, 2008

This guidance streamlines the cleanup process by (1) limiting the number of evaluated technologies to excavation/disposal and containment/capping; (2) facilitating remedy implementation; and (3) facilitating documentation and administrative processes. The focus is on commonly encountered metal contaminants: arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury. This approach is not intended to replace the evaluation of innovative and new technologies.

Adobe PDF LogoRecent Developments for In Situ Treatment of Metal Contaminated Soils
U.S. EPA, Technology Innovation Office.
EPA 542-R-97-004, 64 pp., 1997.

This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals: electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification/stabilization.

Adobe PDF LogoRecommendations to Address Technical Uncertainties in the Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
B.B. Looney, C. Eddy-Dilek, R. Turner, G. Southworth, M. Peterson, and A. Palumbo.
WSRC-STI-2008-00212, 76 pp, 2008

In addition to general discussions of Hg fate and transport and the biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of transformation between major Hg species and MeHg, this report describes the many different approaches, both conventional and innovative, employed to address Hg contamination across the ORNL reservation, with recommendations for future work.

Adobe PDF LogoRemediation Control Strategies and Cost Data for an Economic Analysis of a Mercury Total Maximum Daily Load in California
Alexander Wood, U.S. Geological Survey.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-284, 58 pp., 2003.
Contact: Alexander Wood,

A Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) value indicates a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards, and an allocation of that amount to the source(s) of the pollutant, such as a mine site. The purpose of the report is to illustrate the general costs associated with various remedial practices that are applicable to mercury sources in California. These costs encompass project development, environmental compliance, permit approval, cleanup approaches (including both conventional and innovative technologies), construction, and other transaction costs. Though the costs for remediation projects cited in the report are site-specific, methods for predicting costs through identification and assessment techniques are discussed.

Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Sites: A Review
Wang, J., X. Feng, C.W. Anderson, Y. Xing, and L. Shang.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 221-222:1-18(2012)

This paper presents a review of conventional and emerging techniques for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soil: stabilization/solidification, immobilization, vitrification, thermal desorption, soil washing, electro-remediation, phytostabilization, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization, and nanotechnologies. Longer abstract

Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Soil, Water, and Air: A Review of Emerging Materials and Innovative Technologies
Wang, L., D. Hou, Y. Cao, Y.S. Ok, F.M.G. Tack, J. Rinklebe, and D. O'Connor.
Environment International 134:105281(2019)

Recent developments in technological approaches to remediate Hg-contaminated soil, water, and air, are evaluated with a focus on emerging materials and innovative technologies. Extensive research on various nanomaterials for mercury removal is examined as well as characteristics of emerging materials, including graphene, biochar, metal organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks, layered double hydroxides, clay minerals, and manganese oxides. The review also examines the performance of technologies with the aid of these materials as well as technologies involving organisms. Longer abstract

Adobe PDF LogoRemoval of Mercury from Solids Using the Potassium Iodide/Iodine Leaching Process
K.T. Klasson, L.J. Koran, Jr., D.D. Gates, P.A. Cameron.
ORNL/TM-13137, 30 pp., 1997.

Adobe PDF LogoRemediation Technologies for Heavy Metal Contaminated Groundwater
Hashim, M.A., S. Mukhopadhyay, J.N. Sahu, and B. Sengupta.
Journal of Environmental Management 92(10):2355-2388(2011)

The authors review 35 approaches for remediation of metals in groundwater, broadly classified under chemical, biological, and physico-chemical treatment processes. Comparison tables are provided for a better understanding of each category. At many sites, two or more techniques can perform synergistically for better results.

Treatment Technologies for Mercury in Soil, Waste, and Water
EPA 542-R-07-003, 2007.

This report contains information on the availability, performance, and cost of eight technologies for the treatment of mercury in soil, waste, and water. It describes the theory, design, and operation of the technologies; provides information on commercial availability and use; and includes site-specific data on performance and cost, where available. This information can help managers at sites with mercury-contaminated media and generators of mercury-contaminated waste and wastewater to:

  • Identify proven and effective mercury treatment technologies;
  • Screen technologies based on application-specific goals, characteristics, and cost; and,
  • Apply experiences from sites with similar treatment challenges.

The technologies for soil and waste that are included in the report are solidification and stabilization, soil washing and acid extraction, thermal treatment, and vitrification. Technologies for water include precipitation/coprecipitation, adsorption, membrane filtration, and biological treatment. The report also includes information on ongoing research on mercury treatment, including applications using nanotechnology, phytoremediation, air stripping, and in situ thermal desorption.

Adobe PDF LogoUltralow Concentration Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping
B.B. Looney, M.E. Denham, K.M. Vangelas, and N.S. Bloom, Savannah River Technology Center.
WSRC-MS-2001-00388, 22 pp., 2001.
Brian Looney,

Biological Methods

Adobe PDF LogoAn Overview of the Phytoremediation of Lead and Mercury
Jeanna R. Henry.
National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) status report, 55 pp., 2000.

This report was not subject to EPA peer review or technical review. EPA makes no warranties, expressed or implied, including without limitation, warranty for completeness, accuracy, or usefulness of the information.

Adobe PDF LogoPhytoremediation and Microorganisms-Assisted Phytoremediation of Mercury-Contaminated Soils: Challenges and Perspectives
Tiodar, E.D., C.L. Vacar, and D. Podar.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18:2435(2021)

This article reviews the current understanding of the uptake, translocation, and sequestration of Hg in plants to highlight and explore new avenues in phytoremediation research, discusses different phytoremediation strategies (phytostabilization, phytoextraction and phytovolatilization), and surveys research aimed at identifying suitable plant species and associated-microorganisms for use in phytoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils. The article also investigates the potential use of transgenic plants in Hg-phytoremediation and reviews recent research on exploiting the beneficial interactions between plants and Hg-resistant microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) that secrete plant growth promoting compounds. Lastly, the article highlights areas where more research is needed into the effective use of phytoremediation at Hg-contaminated sites.

Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals: Using Plants to Clean Up the Environment
Ilya Raskin and Burt D. Ensley (eds.).
Wiley, New York. ISBN: 0-471-19254-6, 304 pp., 1999.

Adobe PDF LogoPhytoremediation Project FY00 Final Report — Task 5: Evaluation of Novel Mercury Remediation Technology
U.S. Department of Energy and Polish Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Systems FY00 Annual Report
WSRC-TR-2001-00106, p. 143-243, 2001.

The phytoremediation project applied 0.5% granular sulfur and planted a site with meadow grass. The approach showed promise for stabilizing mercury contaminated soils in situ.

Physical/Chemical Methods

CO2 Sparging: Phase 3 Full-Scale Implementation and Monitoring Report, LCP Chemicals Site, Brunswick, GA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 469 pp, 2016

In situ carbon dioxide (CO2) sparging was designed and implemented to address a subsurface caustic brine pool (CBP) formed as a result of releases from historical chlor-alkali manufacturing operations at the LCP Chemicals Site. The remedial action objectives included reducing the pH of the CBP to between 10 and 10.5. Prior to the start of CO2 sparging, the total mercury concentration in the CBP ranged from 35.7 to 2,530 µg/L (mean: 270 µg/L; median: 128 µg/L). By the end of Phase 3, almost every monitoring point (28 out of 30) in the deep Satilla aquifer had lower total Hg compared to pre-sparge levels. Most of the monitoring points (23 out of 30) had total Hg concentrations <20 µg/L. About one-third of all monitoring points had Hg concentrations <2 µg/L. At the end of Phase 3, the average total Hg concentration fell from 270 to 36 µg/L, and the median concentration fell from 128 to 4 µg/L. CO2 sparging was extremely effective in lowering the mean pH in the deep Satilla aquifer from 11.32 (2011-2012) to 7.11. The median pH decreased from 11.44 to 6.57.

Adobe PDF LogoControlling Mercury Release from Source Zones to Surface Water: Initial Results of Pilot Tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex
G.R. Southworth, S.C. Brooks, M.J. Peterson, M.A. Bogle, C.L. Miller, L. Liang, and M. Elliott.
ORNL/TM-2009/035, 47 pp, 2009

This report presents the results of pilot tests focused on remediation of waterborne mercury (Hg) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The project goal is to develop strategies and treatment technologies that reduce the concentration and loading of waterborne Hg discharges to the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC), thus minimizing Hg uptake by fish. The two specific studies are (1) reducing flow augmentation in UEFPC to lessen Hg mobilization from contaminated stream sediments and (2) treatment of contaminated source waters with a chemical reductant to convert dissolved Hg to a volatile form that can be removed by air stripping. Initial results suggest that a combination of reducing augmented flow volume and chemical reduction using stannous chloride will produce at least a 35% reduction in base-flow Hg loading to UEFPC, from ~8 g/d to 5 g/d.

Adobe PDF LogoDemonstration Results on the Effects of Mercury Speciation on the Stabilization of Wastes
I.W. Osborne-Lee, T.B. Conley, G.A. Hulet, M.I. Morris.
ORNL/TM-1999/120, 26 pp., 1999.

Adobe PDF LogoEvaluation of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics for Mercury Stabilization of a Mixed Synthetic Waste
S. Chattopadhyay, Battelle, Columbus, OH.
EPA 600-R-03-113, 70 pp., 2003.

Adobe PDF LogoHarbauer Soil Washing/Vacuum-Distillation System, Harbauer GmbH & Company KG Facility, Marktredwitz, Germany. EPA - BMBF Bilateral Site Demonstration Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
U.S. EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, 110 pp., 1996.

The soil washing process separates the contaminated feed soil into a coarse-grained fraction and a fine-grained fraction. Coarse soil with greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg Hg is crushed and treated in the vacuum-distillation process. Fine soil (< 2 mm) at Hg concentrations up to 5,000 mg/kg, is treated in the vacuum-distillation process, which heats the soil under a vacuum to volatilize and remove mercury. Mercury vapors removed from the vacuum-distillation unit enter a water-cooled multistep condenser unit that liquefies the vapors into elemental mercury. The treated fine soil fraction is mixed with any coarse soil fraction containing less than 50 mg/kg mercury and disposed of in a landfill.

Adobe PDF LogoIntroducing a Novel Amendment Technology in the Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Soils at a Legacy Munitions Production Site
Griffin, D. and D. Gray. 16th meeting of the International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant (ICMGP), 24-29 July, virtual, 24 slides, 2022

Rapid mercury sequestration and long-term stability were validated in bench and field studies in a wide range of soils and subsurface conditions using the novel remediation amendment technology platform MercLok™. Ionic, elemental, mineral-bound and organic species such as methylmercury were included in the studies. Additional tests conducted exhibited high efficacy for other heavy metals and organic co-contaminants. The resulting data was used to design and implement a multi-faceted pilot study at a mercury-contaminated site in Germany. Objectives were to further demonstrate field-scale efficacy and determine different methods for applying the amendment into the subsurface. Mercury speciation, leachability, and sequential extraction tests were conducted on soil and groundwater samples to optimize amendment loading rates and the selected area of the pilot. The pilot was designed to evaluate field-scale performance, amendment contact, and delivery treatments using shallow soil mixing and direct-push injection. Field implementation was designed using conventional methods and equipment. Loading rates on the order of 5-10 wt.% were appropriate to address mercury concentrations up to 500,000 mg/kg. To date, results indicate MercLok was effective in stabilizing and sequestering high levels of multiple species of mercury in the soil and effluent.

Adobe PDF LogoMeasurements of Mercury Released from Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms, FY 2002
C.H. Mattus.
ORNL/TM-2002/283, 39 pp., 2003.

This report describes the results of tests of stabilized mercury wastes undertaken to examine the consequences of mercury speciation on mercury release.

Adobe PDF LogoMercury Contamination — Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA): Demonstration of DeHgSM Process
U.S. DOE, Office of Environmental Management.
DOE/EM-0471, 32 pp., 1999.

Adobe PDF LogoMercury Removal Performance of AmberliteTM GT-73A, PuroliteTM S-920, IonacTM SR-4 and SIR-200TM Resins
F.F. Fondeur, W.B. Van Pelt, S.D. Fink.
WSRC-TR-2002-00046, 14 pp., Jan 2002.

Remediating Mercury Contaminated Soil at Botany Industrial Park
Orica Austalia Pty. Ltd., 2 pp, 2010

A mercury technology was used to produce chlorine at Botany Industrial Park in Australia from 1945 until 2002. The original plant was completely demolished by 2007. To address Hg detected in the site's soil, excavation of the contaminated areas will be followed by on-site application of a water-based soil washing technology in a mobile treatment plant to remove the contaminant. The washing and screening process separates Hg from the bulk of the soil, and the washing water is recycled. The majority of Hg is recovered in its elemental liquid form. Remediation work should commence in late 2010 and be completed in mid 2011. Untreatable contaminated concrete and sludge from the soil washing process will be disposed of at an off-site licensed facility. The enclosed soil washing plant and the main excavation area will have emission control systems that contain activated carbon beds to remove Hg from the air. After confirming that the treatment has achieved remediation goals, the cleansed soil will be stockpiled before reinstallation on site. The project is described in greater detail in the site's Remediation Action Plan (140 pp, 2010).

Adobe PDF LogoStabilization and Testing of Mercury Containing Wastes: Borden Catalyst
L.A. Rieser, P. Bishop, M.T. Suidan, H. Piao, R.A. Fauche, and J. Zhang.
EPA 600-R-02-019, 42 pp., 2001.
Contact: Paul Randall,

This report describes a demonstration of a technique to treat leachate with sulfide and phosphate binders.

Stabilization and Testing of Mercury Containing Wastes: Borden Sludge
Bishop, P., R.A. Rauche, L.A. Rieser, M.T. Suidan, and J. Zhang.
EPA 600-R-02-020, 26 pp., 2002.
Contact: Paul Randall,

This report details the stability assessment of a mercury-containing sulfide treatment sludge.

Adobe PDF LogoStabilization of Mercury in Waste Material from the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine: Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.
EPA 540-R-04-502, 68 pp, 2004.

Investigators examined the Silica Micro Encapsulation process developed by Klean Earth Environmental Company, an inorganic sulfide stabilization technology (ENTHRALL®) developed by E&C Williams, and a generic phosphate treatment.

Adobe PDF LogoSulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) Treatment of Mixed Waste Mercury Recovered from Environmental Restoration Activities at BNL
P.D. Kalb, J.W. Adams, and L.W. Milian.
BNL-52614, 43 pp., 2001.

A pilot-scale demonstration of the SPSS process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations (∼5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury was conducted at Brookhaven National Lab. SPSS chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability.

Adobe PDF LogoTechnical Report: Advances in Encapsulation Technologies for the Management of Mercury-Contaminated Hazardous Wastes
S. Chattopadhyay, W.E. Condit, Battelle, Columbus, OH.
EPA 600-R-02-081, 46 pp., Aug 2002.
Contact: Paul Randall,

Encapsulation methods physically immobilize hazardous wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. This report summarizes the following methods: sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification and encapsulation by chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, polyethylene, asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels (e.g., polycerams), and Dolocrete™.

Thermal Processes

Adobe PDF LogoBench- and Pilot-Scale Demonstration of Thermal Desorption for Removal of Mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Floodplain Soils
M.I. Morris, R.J. Sams, G. Gillis, R.W. Helsel, E.S. Alperin, T.J. Geisler, A. Groen, and D. Root.
CONF-950216-129, 11 pp., 1995.

Adobe PDF LogoThe Sepradyne™-Raduce System for Recovery of Mercury from Mixed Waste
U.S. DOE, Office of Science and Technology.
DOE/EM-0633, 42 pp., 2002.
Contact: Greg Hulet,

SepraDyne™, through its subsidiary Raduce, has demonstrated a process for vacuum thermal desorption that can remove mercury from mixed wastes to levels below 10 ppm.

Adobe PDF LogoTechnical Guidelines for On-Site Thermal Desorption of Solid Media and Low Level Mixed Waste Contaminated with Mercury and/or Hazardous Chlorinated Organics
The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC), 68 pp., 1998.

Site-Specific Information

CLU-IN Site Profile Databases

CLU-IN Site Profile Databases contain information on thousands of projects where innovative approaches have been used to deal with contamination problems.

Completed North America Innovative Technology Demonstration Projects

Lists field demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies sponsored by government agencies working in partnership with private technology developers.

Cost and Performance Case Studies from the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable

The FRTR Remediation Case Study Searchable Database provides capability to search all the case studies by keyword and category, including media/matrix, contaminant type, primary and supplemental technology type, specific site name, or state.

Literature References

Technology Innovation News Survey Archives
The Technology Innovation News Survey archive contains resources gathered from published material and gray literature relevant to the research, development, testing, and application of innovative technologies for the remediation of hazardous waste sites. The collected abstracts date from 1998 to the present, and the archive is updated twice each month.