U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Pre-Solicitation: U.S. EPA 2017-2018 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I

U.S. EPA contemplates awarding about 12 firm-fixed-price contracts of $100,000 each under the SBIR Program Phase I during FY 2018. Among the six topic areas identified by the Agency, the needs for feasibility-related research or R&D efforts on per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds may be of particular interest to the cleanup community.

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

Remediation Technologies

Introduction

This section provides an overview of remediation technologies that have been used or are being evaluated to treat PFAS-contaminated media. Most of the available information concerns the treatment of drinking water, wastewater, and groundwater; treatment of soils and sediments has received less attention. The remediation technologies addressed below are primarily focused on PFOS and PFOA; however, researchers such as Liu et al. 2015 and Place and Field 2012 report that many other PFASs may be present in wastewater, surface water, and at firefighter training areas or other sites where aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used. Technologies that are able to treat PFOS and PFOA effectively may be ineffective for other PFASs with different chemical and physical properties. In addition, co-contaminants such as hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents may also be present at sites contaminated with PFASs. Oxidative technologies such as in situ chemical oxidation, which are often applied to these contaminants, may transform polyfluorinated precursors into PFOS and PFOA (Merina et al 2016). Air stripping, which is often applied to remove chlorinated solvents from extracted groundwater, may result in PFASs being released as aerosols (Oliaei et a. 2013). These potential impacts may affect the selection and implementation of remedies at PFAS sites.

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Technology Overviews

The following are summary descriptions of remediation technologies and are hyperlinked to subsections containing citations to relevant papers and reports for additional reading. Each citation in the subsection is followed by a brief description that indicates the focus or scope of the publication's content. The available information for some technologies is limited because remediating PFAS contamination has only recently been contemplated. EPA does not endorse any technology or the findings, conclusions, or recommendations of the publications. Readers are encouraged to consult the linked text for a description of results, conclusions, and recommendations.

Remediation Technologies Used for PFAS-Contaminated Media

Excavation and Off-Site Disposal. Excavation of soil and sediment with disposal at an off-site landfill has been selected as a means to remove and contain PFAS-contaminated media (MPCA 2008a, 2008b, and 2009).

Pump and Treat. Extraction of groundwater followed by treatment with granular activated carbon has been selected as a means to control the migration of PFAS-contaminated groundwater (MPCA 2008a, 2008b, and 2009).

Remediation Technologies Being Evaluated for PFAS-Contaminated Media

Adsorption. Activated carbon in either the powdered or granular form can be effective at removing PFOA and PFOS from water (USEPA 2016a and b). Bench- and pilot-scale studies are required to select the most effective product and contact time (Cummings et al. 2015) and to evaluate treatment costs (USEPA 2016a and b). Proprietary adsorbents such as RemBind™ and PefluorAd are being marketed as alternatives or complements to activated carbon (Birk 2016). Disposal and treatment of exhausted activated carbon or used adsorbents may also be an important consideration. Ion exchange resin has two broad resin categories: cationic and anionic. Cationic exchange resins may be effective for treating water containing positively charged PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide amines). Anion exchange resins have been shown to be effective for treating negatively charged PFASs (e.g., PFOA and PFOS) and require periodic regeneration to restore uptake capacity (Dudley et al. 2015, USEPA 2016a and b).

Bioremediation. The microbial transformation of polyfluorinated precursors to yield perfluorinated compounds is likely to occur in aerobic environments (Dasu and Lee 2016, Liu and Avendaño 2013). A limited number of studies have found that perfluorinated compounds such as PFOS and PFOA are resistant to microbial degradation transformation in aerobic environments; few detailed studies under anaerobic conditions have been completed to date (Liu and Avendaño 2013).

Chemical Oxidation. Common drinking water oxidative/disinfection agents such as packed tower aeration, chloramination, chlorination, ozonation, potassium permanganate, ultraviolet (UV) treatment, and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been shown to be ineffective for PFOS and PFOA (Dickenson and Higgins 2016, EPA 2016a and b). However, bench-scale work has shown the potential for some oxidants and oxidant systems to degrade some PFASs (Crimi 2016). There is a concern that polyfluorinated precursors may be transformed into oxidation-resistant perfluoroalkyl carboxylates during in situ chemical oxidation (Place and Field 2012).

Chemical Reduction. Preliminary research has shown that a number of chemical reduction techniques are capable of degrading some PFASs (Crimi 2016).

Electrochemical Oxidation. Bench-scale testing has shown that electrochemical oxidation of PFASs at concentrations of less than 200 mg/L is achievable for some anode and electrolyte combinations (Niu et al. 2016).

Incineration and Thermal Treatment. Research to date has focused on PFAS-containing solid waste showing that fluorotelomer-based acrylic polymer was destroyed in a laboratory-scale reactor designed to simulate municipal incineration conditions (Yamada et al. 2005). Other research has focused on the ex situ thermal treatment of PFOS-containing sludge (Wang et al. 2013).

Membrane Filtration. High pressure membranes, such as those used in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration systems, can reject particulates and dissolved species such as PFAS (EPA 2016a and b). Reverse Osmosis (RO) involves retaining PFASs on the pressurized side of a membrane and has been shown in both bench- and full-scale applications to remove PFOS and PFOA from water (Cummings et al. 2015, EPA 2016a and b). Nanofiltration is similar to RO, although it operates at lower pressures, and has been shown in bench-scale experiments to remove PFOS from water (Cummings et al. 2015). Disposal and treatment of the retained fluid (i.e., rejectate), which potentially contains high concentrations of PFASs, may also be an important consideration.

Solidification/Stabilization. There are reports of mixing adsorbents with soil to reduce the mobility of PFASs (Birk 2016).

Sonochemical Treatment. Bench-scale research has been completed demonstrating the applicability of treating PFASs in water by sonolysis (Merino et al. 2016).

Additional information on a wide variety of treatment technologies for drinking water, some of which may be applicable to PFOS or PFOA, can be found in EPA's Drinking Water Treatability Database.

References

Birk, G.M. 2016. Immobilization of PFASs using activated carbon and aluminum hydroxide. Emerging Contaminants Summit, March 1-2, 2016, Westminster, Colorado.

Cummings L., et al. 2015. Recommendation on Perfluorinated Compound Treatment Options for Drinking Water. New Jersey Drinking Water Quality Institute, Treatment Subcommittee, June 2015.

Crimi, M. 2016. PFAS Treatment Options for Soil & Groundwater. NEWMOA PFAS Treatment & Remediation Webinar.

Dasu, K. and L.S. Lee. 2016. Aerobic biodegradation of toluene-2,4-di(8:2 fluorotelomer urethane) and hexamethylene-1,6-di(8:2 fluorotelomer urethane) monomers in soils. Chemosphere 144:2482-2488.

Dickenson, E. and C. Higgins. 2016. Treatment Mitigation Strategies for Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Water Research Foundation, Project #4322.

Dudley, L.-A., et al. 2015. Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Substances by PAC Adsorption and Anion Exchange: Executive Summary. Water Research Foundation, Project #4344, 5 pp.

Liu, J. and S.M. Avendaño. 2013. Microbial degradation of polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the environment: A review. Environment International 61:98-114.

Liu, Y., et al. 2015. Discovery of C5-C17 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in water by in-line SPE-HPLC-Orbitrap with in-source fragmentation flagging. Analytical Chemistry 87(8):4260-4268.

Merino, N., et al. 2016. Degradation and removal methods for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in water. Environmental Engineering Science 33(9):615-649.

MPCA (innesota Pollution Control Agency). 2008a. Minnesota Decision Document, 3M Oakdale Disposal Site, City of Oakdale, Washington County, Minnesota.

MPCA (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency). 2008b. Minnesota Decision Document, 3M Woodbury Disposal Site, City of Woodbury, Washington County, Minnesota.

MPCA (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency). 2009. Minnesota Decision Document, 3M Cottage Grove Disposal Site, City of Cottage Grove, Washington County, Minnesota.

Niu, J., Y. Li, E. Shang, Z. Xu, and J. Liu. 2016. Electrochemical oxidation of perfluorinated compounds in water. Chemosphere 146:526-538. [Abstract]

Place, B.J. and J.A. Field. 2012. Identification of novel fluorochemicals in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) used by the US military. Environmental Science & Technology 46(13):7120-7127.

Oliaei, F., D. Kriens, R. Weber, and A. Watson. 2013. PFOS and PFC releases and associated pollution from a PFC production plant in Minnesota (USA). Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20(4): 1977-1992.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2016a. Drinking Water Health Advisory for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA). Office of Water, EPA 822-R-16-005, 103 pp.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2016b. Drinking Water Health Advisory for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS). Office of Water, EPA 822-R-16-004, 88 pp.

Wang, F. et al. 2013. Mineralization behavior of fluorine in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) during thermal treatment of lime-conditioned sludge. Environmental Science & Technology 47(6):2621-2627.

Yamada, T., et al. 2005. Thermal degradation of fluorotelomer treated articles and related materials. Chemosphere 61(7):974-984.

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Jump to a Subsection
Overviews of Multiple Technologies | Adsorption | Bioremediation | Chemical Oxidation | Chemical Reduction | Electrochemical Oxidation | Excavation and Off-Site Disposal | Incineration and Thermal Treatment | Membrane Filtration (Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration) | Pump and Treat | Solidification/Stabilization | Sonochemistry | Other

Overviews of Multiple Technologies

Adobe PDF LogoAbiotic Treatment Technologies for In-Site Remediation of Persistent Perfluoroalkyl Acids
Lee, L.S., S. Park, and J. Zenobio.
NICOLE Workshop, June 26, 2015, Manchester, UK, 37 slides, 2015

This presentation surveys abiotic treatment technologies and indicates (with references) where there has been some success and which technologies, to date, have not shown promise.

Behaviour and Fate of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Drinking Water Treatment: A Review
Rahman, M.F., S. Peldszus, and W.B. Anderson.
Water Research 50:318-340(2014) [Abstract]

This peer reviewed paper reviews PFAS characteristics, their occurrence in surface water, and their fate in drinking water treatment processes.

Degradation and Removal Methods for Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Water
Merino, N., Y. Qu, R. Deeb, E. Hawley, M. Hoffmann, and S. Mahendra.
Environmental Engineering Science 33(9):615-649(2016) [Abstract]

This review presents a comprehensive summary of several categories of treatment approaches: (1) sorption using activated carbon, ion exchange, or other sorbents, (2) advanced oxidation processes, (3) advanced reduction processes using aqueous iodide or dithionite and sulfite, (4) thermal and nonthermal destruction, (5) microbial treatment, and (6) other treatment processes, including ozonation under alkaline conditions, permanganate oxidation, vitamin-B12 and Ti(III) citrate reductive defluorination, and ball milling.

Adobe PDF LogoDrinking Water Health Advisory for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)
U.S. EPA, Office of Water.
EPA 822-R-16-004, 88 pp, 2016

Chapter 10 contains a review of the effectiveness of current drinking water treatment processes in effectively treating PFOS and references to papers describing the performance of these technologies.

Adobe PDF LogoDrinking Water Health Advisory for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)
U.S. EPA, Office of Water.
EPA 822-R-16-005, 103 pp, 2016

The document offers an overview in chapter 10 of the effectiveness of current drinking water treatment processes in effectively treating PFOS and references to papers describing the performance of these technologies.

Adobe PDF LogoThe Emerging Issue: PFAS–Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances–Big Picture, Challenges and Solutions
Ross, I.
RemTech 2016: Remediation Technologies Symposium, 50 slides, 2016

An overview of PFAS issues is followed by a review of potential PFAS remediation options (slides 32-49).

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Fate and Effects of Poly and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
Pancras, T., G. Schrauwen, T. Held, K. Baker, I. Ross, and H. Slenders.
Concawe, Report No. 8/16, 121 pp, 2016

With an emphasis on chemicals found in AFFF products, Chapter 8 in this report provides brief discussions on the viability of various treatment options for soil and groundwater.

Adobe PDF LogoOverview of Remediation Technologies Potentially Applicable to Perfluoroalkyl Substances
Hohenstein, G.
2016 Emerging Contaminants Summit, 34 slides, 2016

This presentation evaluates 3M Company's experience with a variety of technologies for treating PFASs.

Adobe PDF LogoPFAS Treatment Options for Soil & Groundwater
Crimi, M.
NEWMOA PFAS Treatment & Remediation Webinar, 11 slides, 2016

This presentation summarizes the challenges associated with treatment of PFAS-contaminated soil and groundwater and describes potential viable PFAS remediation approaches.

Adobe PDF LogoPer- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs): Chemistry, Occurrence, Regulation, Mobility and Remediation
DiGuiseppi, B. and M. Danon-Schaffer.
RemTech 2016: Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, AB, Canada. 26 slides [Abstract]

Technology tests involving oxidation, sorption, thermal, and biological treatment from researchers in academia and industry are reviewed and evaluated in terms of demonstrated effectiveness and applicability (slides 15-25).

Adobe PDF LogoRecommendation on Perfluorinated Compound Treatment Options for Drinking Water
New Jersey Drinking Water Quality Institute, Treatment Subcommittee, 13 pp, 2015

This report describes PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA treatment options for municipal utilities.

Adobe PDF LogoTreatment Mitigation Strategies for Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances
Dickenson, E. and C. Higgins.
Water Research Foundation, Project #4322, 123 pp, 2016

This report looks at the efficacy of various treatment technologies available to drinking water utilities for treatment of source water containing PFASs. (SummaryAdobe PDF Logo)

Adobe PDF LogoTreatment of Poly- And Perfluoroalkyl Substances in U.S. Full-Scale Water Treatment Systems
Appleman, T., C. Higgins, O. Quinones, B. Vanderford, C. Kolstad, J. Zeigler-Holady, and E. Dickenson.
Water Research 51:246-255(2014) [Abstract]

Concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents were measured and evaluated in 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities across the U.S. An LC/MS-MS method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs to determine the relative PFAS removal effectiveness of the different treatment technologies. Additional information: SlidesAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoTreatment Technologies for Aqueous Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA): A Critical Review with an Emphasis on Field Testing
Espana, V.A.A., M. Mallavarapu, and R. Naidu.
Environmental Technology & Innovation 4:168-181(2015) [Abstract]

A review of existing methods for removing PFOS and PFOA from wastewaters emphasizes processes that seem to show promise for the development of practical industrial-scale remediation technologies.

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Adsorption

Adobe PDF LogoAdsorption of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) by an Organically Modified Palygorskite
Espana, V.A.A., B. Sarkar, and R. Naidu.
CleanUp Conference 2015, 13-16 September, Melbourne, Australia, P8, 462-463 [517-518 in PDF file count], 2015

This study assesses the adsorption of PFOS and PFOA by an organically modified palygorskite.

Adsorption of Traditional and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances by Powdered Activated Carbon
Sun, M., L.-A. Dudley, M. Strynar, A. Lindstrom, and D. Knappe.
Abstracts: American Chemical Society Conference, Philadelphia, August 2016 [Longer abstract]

The objective of this research was to identify parameters that control the adsorption of PFASs, including 10 traditional PFASs (7 carboxylic acids, 3 sulfonic acids) and 6 emerging perfluoro(poly)ethers, by a thermally activated wood-based powdered activated carbon. The project also evaluated the potential for using the relationship between the number of perfluorinated carbon atoms and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log D) as a tool to predict the adsorbability of emerging PFASs by activated carbon.

Adobe PDF LogoAdsorption Properties of Modified Natural Materials for the Removal of Perfluorochemicals in AFFF Wastewater
Kambala, V., F. Han, T. Kandasamy, and R. Naidu.
Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science – Soil Solutions for a Changing World – Brisbane, Queensland, 1-6 August 2010. International Union of Soil Sciences, 3 pp, 2010

The authors investigated the sorption behavior of MatCARE™ using batch experiments with technical-grade Ansulite (a new aqueous film-forming foam product) and AFFF wastewater.

Adsorptive Removal of Emerging Polyfluoroalky Substances F-53B and PFOS by Anion-Exchange Resin: A Comparative Study
Gao, Y., S. Deng, Z. Du, K. Liu, and G. Yu.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 323(Pt A):550-557(2017) [Abstract]

Researchers evaluated the anion-exchange resin IRA67.

AFFF Contaminated Soil and Water: Risks, Remedial Options
Naidu, R.
Parliament of Victoria [Australia]: Inquiry into the CFA Training College at Fiskville. Transcript and 48 slides, 19 Oct 2015

This presentation describes the use of MatCARE™, an amine-modified clay, at AFFF-contaminated sites in Australia. Additional information: TranscriptAdobe PDF Logo, SlidesAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoDevelopment of Effective Removal Methods of PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds) in Water by Adsorption and Coagulation
Senevirathna, T.M.L.D.S., Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kyoto, Japan, 177 pp, 2010

The work included examination of the ability of six synthetic resins and GAC to remove PFCs from water in addition to an evaluation of organic coagulants.

Efficient Sorption and Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) from Aqueous Solution by Metal Hydroxides Generated In Situ by Electrocoagulation
Lin, H., Y. Wang, J. Niu, Z. Yue, and Q. Huang.
Environmental Science & Technology 49(17):10562-10569(2015) [Abstract]

Four metal hydroxide flocs generated in situ by electrocoagulation in deionized water were evaluated for their ability to remove PFOS and perfluorocarboxylic acids (C4 through C10).

Electrocoagulation Mechanism of Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on a Zinc Anode: Influence of Cathodes and Anions
Wang, Y., H. Lin, F. Jin, J. Niu, J. Zhao, Y. Bi, and Y. Li.
Science of the Total Environment 557-558:542-550(2016) [Abstract]

Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different cathode materials and anions on PFOA removal by electrocoagulation using a zinc anode.

Adobe PDF LogoFluorochemicals in AFFF Contaminated Sites: Environmental Fate, Toxicity and Treatment
Liu, J., J. Paquin, and G. Zhong.
2016 RPIC Federal Contaminated Sites (FCS) National Workshop, 25-27 April, 43 slides, 2016

Challenges in addressing PFAS contamination are described and illustrated by two case studies: one involving an underground storage tank containing AFFF, and the other the cleanup of surface and subsurface liquids (petroleum and AFFF) remaining after a crude oil train derailment and fire.

Adobe PDF LogoImmobilization of PFASs Using Activated Carbon and Aluminum Hydroxide
Birk, G.M.
Emerging Contaminants Summit, March 1-2, 2016, Westminster, Colorado. 36 slides, 2016

This presentation reports on the results of the use of RemBind™ and RemBind Plus™ on soils contaminated with PFASs at two airport fire training grounds in Australia.The presentation also introduces PerfluorAd, a cationized cellulose-based raw material that is designed to bond with and precipitate PFASs in aqueous media. Additional information: Longer abstract; Rembind posterAdobe PDF Logo; Rembind patent; PerfluorAd posterAdobe PDF Logo.

Lessons Learned on Vermont POET Installations and Operations for Residences Impacted by PFASs Adobe PDF Logo
NEWMOA PFAS Treatment & Remediation Webinar, 8 slides, 2016

Provides an overview of experience with installing and maintaining point-of-entry treatment (POET) systems in households in North Bennington, Vermont.

Adobe PDF LogoPerformance Evaluation: Removal of Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) with Point-of-Use (POU) Water Treatment Devices
Olsen, P.C. and D.J. Paulson.
Minnesota Department of Health, 140 pp, 2008

The Minnesota Department of Health commissioned a study that evaluated the ability of 11 commercially available POU water treatment devices to remove PFCs from groundwater sourced from community and non-community public water supplies and private wells.

Remediation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Contaminated Soils by Modified Clay Adsorbent: A Risk-Based Approach
Das, P., V.A. Arias, V. Kambala, M. Mallavarupu, and R. Naidu.
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 224(12):1714(2013) [Abstract]

Researchers investigated the removal of PFOS from impacted waters and fixation of PFOS in soils using MatCARE™, a modified clay adsorbent. Additional information: U.S. Patent 9,284,201, Amine Modified Clay Sorbents (2016).

Adobe PDF LogoRemoval Efficiency of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Drinking Water: Evaluation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Anion Exchange (AE) Using Column Tests, and the Effect of Dissolved Organic Carbon
Oestlund, Anna, Master's thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 59 pp, 2015

The removal efficiency of selected PFASs—26 PFASs in a column experiment and 14 PFASs in a batch experiment—from water was evaluated for two treatment techniques: GAC (Filtrasorb 400®) and anion exchange (Purolite A-600). The effect of dissolved organic carbon on removal efficiency was also studied.

Removal of Perfluorinated Compounds by Anion Exchange: Factors Affecting Resin Performance and Regeneration
Perez, Elisa Carolina Arevalo, Master's thesis, North Carolina State University, 114 pp, 2014

Objectives of this research were to (1) assess the effectiveness of a magnetic anion-exchange resin for the removal of seven PFCAs and three PFSAs, and (2) identify regeneration strategies that effectively restore the PFAS uptake capacity of the spent anion exchange resin.

Removal of Perfluorinated Compounds from Ultrapure and Surface Waters by Adsorption and Ion Exchange
Rahman, Mohammad Feisal, Ph.D. thesis, University of Waterloo, 315 pp, 2014

This study assessed the adsorption behavior of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) by four GACs, two anion exchange resins, and two alternative adsorbents.

Adobe PDF LogoRemoval of Perfluoroalkyl Substances by PAC Adsorption and Anion Exchange: Executive Summary
Dudley, L.-A., E. Arevalo, and D. Knappe.
Water Research Foundation, Project #4344, 5 pp, 2015

Researchers assessed the removal effectiveness of powdered activated carbon adsorption and anion exchange processes on 10 PFASs: PFOA (or C8), PFOS, perfluorobutanoic acid (C4), perfluoropentanoic acid (C5), perfluorohexanoic acid (C6), perfluoroheptanoic acid (C7), perfluorononanoic acid (C9), perfluorodecanoic acid (C10), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS).

Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates (PFAS) from Aqueous Solution Using Permanently Confined Micelle Arrays (PCMAs)
Wang, F., X. Lu, K.M. Shih, P. Wang, and X. Li.
Separation and Purification Technology138:7-12(2014) [Abstract]

A new sorbent with permanently confined micelle arrays was developed and tested for removing PFAS compounds from aquatic solutions.

Removal of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate from Wastewater by Ion Exchange
Lampert, D., M. Frisch, and G. Speitel Jr.
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management 11(1):60-68(2007) [Abstract]

A treatment screening study was performed to investigate activated carbon adsorption, adsorption onto calcium fluoride solids, evaporation, ion exchange, and liquid-liquid extraction for treatment of PFOA and PFOS in wastewater.

Removing Perfluoroalkyl Acids from Potable Reuse Systems Using Carbon Adsorbents: Bench-Scale and Pilot Testing
Inyang, M., E. Dickenson, and M. Velarde.
Abstract: American Chemical Society Conference, Philadelphia, August 2016 [Longer abstract]

This presentation discusses tests at bench and pilot scale of biochar as a potential alternative adsorbent to GAC for its sorption ability for PFOA and PFBA.

Residual Organic Fluorinated Compounds from Thermal Treatment of PFOA, PFHxA and PFOS Adsorbed onto Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
Watanabe, N., S. Takemine, K. Yamamoto, Y. Haga, and M. Takata.
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 18(4):625-630(2016) [Abstract]

PFASs adsorbed onto GAC during water treatment were thermally treated (700-1000°C) in an N2 gas stream to assess the fate (e.g., volatile escape) of PFASs during thermal regeneration of GAC.

Thermal Mineralization Behavior of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS During Reactivation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) in Nitrogen Atmosphere
Watanabe, N., M. Takata, S. Takemine, and K. Yamamoto.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2015) DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5353-2 [Abstract]

The recovery rate of mineralized fluorine and PFC homologues, including short-chained perfluorocarboxylic acids, was determined during thermal reactivation of GAC in N2 atmosphere.

Treatment of Sites Contaminated with Perfluorinated Compounds Using Biochar Amendment
Kupryianchyk, D., S. Hale, G. Breedveld, and C. Cornelissen.
Chemosphere142:35-40(2016) [Abstract]

The sorption behavior of PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS was examined on activated carbon and two biochars from different feedstocks. In addition, three native PFAS-contaminated soils were treated by mixing activated carbon and biochar into them and observing subsequent leaching results.

Use of Fenton Reagent Combined with Humic Acids for the Removal of PFOA from Contaminated Water
Santos, A., S. Rodriguez, F. Pardo, and A. Romero.
Science of the Total Environment 563-564:657-663(2016) [Abstract]

A hybrid alternative process to heat-activated persulfate was tested at bench scale by adding humic acid and Fenton-like reagent to a 0.1 mM PFOA solution to evaluate PFOA oxidation efficiency.

Use of Strong Anion Exchange Resins for the Removal of Perfluoroalkylated Substances from Contaminated Drinking Water in Batch and Continuous Pilot Plants
Zaggia, A., L. Conte, L. Falletti, M. Fant, and A. Chiorboli.
Water Research 91:137-146(2016) [Abstract]

A study of the application of three strong anion exchange resins (Purolite® A520E, A600E, and A532E) to the removal of traces of PFOA, PFOS, PFBA and PFBS (concentration of hundreds of ng/L) from drinking water included an investigation of the possibility of reusing the resins after an in situ regeneration step.

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Bioremediation

Aerobic Biotransformation of Fluorotelomer Thioamido Sulfonate (Lodyne™) in AFFF- Amended Microcosms
Harding-Marjanovic, K., E. Houtz, S. Yi, J. Field, D. Sedlak, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. Environmental Science & Technology 49:7666-7674(2015) [Abstract]

This article describes the aerobic biotransformation of fluorotelomer thioamido sulfonate into other PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids.

Adobe PDF LogoBioaugmentation with Vaults: Novel In Situ Remediation Strategy for Transformation of Perfluoroalkyl Compounds
Mahendra, S., L.H. Rome, V.A. Kickhoefer, and M. Wang.
SERDP Project ER-2422, 58 pp, 2016

Researchers pursued a single-step method for encapsulating active enzymes (e.g., laccase enzymes from wood-rotting fungi) in naturally synthesized, hollow ribonucleoprotein particles, referred to as recombinant vaults, to address PFOA in groundwater.

Effects of Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFFs) on Trichloroethene (TCE) Dechlorination by a Dehalococcoides mccartyi-Containing Microbial Community
Harding-Marjanovic, K.C., S. Yi, T.S. Weathers, J.O. Sharp, D.L. Sedlak, and L. Alvarez-Cohen.
Environmental Science & Technology 50(7):3352-3361(2016) [Abstract]

Researchers investigated the effects of AFFF components on TCE biodegradation potential.

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Chemical Oxidation

Adobe PDF LogoActivated Persulfate Oxidation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Groundwater under Acidic Conditions
Yin, P., Z. Hu, X. Song, J. Liu, and N. Lin.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(6):602(2016)

PFOA degradation using activated persulfate was examined under varied experimental conditions to evaluate the impact of different factors on persulfate activity, including pH, temperature, persulfate dosage, and reaction time.

Applications of ScisoR® for In-situ Treatment of PFOS in Soil and Groundwater
Horneman, A.
Emerging Contaminants Summit, March 1-2, 2016, Westminster, Colorado. Poster abstract, 2016

This presentation describes testing of ScisoR® (i.e., Smart combined in situ oxidation and Reduction) technology at bench scale to provide proof of concept and site-specific design parameters for pilot- and full-scale application of the technology for PFOS. Additional information: U.S. Patent Application

Chemical Oxidation of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in AFFF-Impacted Groundwater
Bruton, T.
Emerging Contaminants Summit, March 1-2, 2016, Westminster, Colorado. (Abstract only)

The effect of either Fenton's reagent or persulfate on the fate of PFAS chemicals in AFFF was studied in bench-scale experiments.

Chemical Oxidation of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in AFFF-Impacted Groundwater
Bruton, T. and D. Sedlak.
An Integrated Approach to Sustainable Solutions: Session II – Technologies for Water Remediation. A CLU-IN Webinar sponsored by NIEHS, 20 June 2016. 31 slides, 2016

An overview of research performed at UC Berkeley to develop chemical oxidation treatments for in situ remediation of PFAS is available in an archived presentation.Microsoft PowerPoint Logo

Adobe PDF LogoDegradation of Perfluoroalkyl Acids by Enzyme Catalyzed Oxidative Humification Reactions
Luo, Qi, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia, 210 pp, 2015

The ability of an enhanced natural process called enzyme-catalyzed oxidative humification reactions (ECOHRs) is being studied to evaluate its effectiveness in transforming both PFOA and PFOS in the aqueous phase at environmentally relevant conditions. Additionally, PFOA degradation efficiency by ECOHRs in soil was studied without amendment (i.e., unamended natural soil organic matter only) and by addition of extra natural organic matter (i.e., soybean meal).

Degradation of Perfluoroctane Sulfonate by Enzyme Catalyzed Oxidative Humification Reactions
Huang, Q.
Abstracts: American Chemical Society Conference, Philadelphia, August 2016 [Longer abstract]

This presentation discusses the degradation of PFOS by laccase-induced enzyme-catalyzed oxidative humification reactions (ECOHRs) using 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as a mediator to assess the potential of the reactions for removing PFOS from a contaminated environment.

Degrading Non-Volatile Halogenated Organic Compounds
Inventors: T.A. Pancras, W. Plaisier, P. Jacobus, A. Dols, and J.A. Barbier.
Patent Application WO 2013119121 A1, Applicant: Arcadis Nederland B.V.

The invention relates to a method of degrading non-volatile halogenated organic compounds, to use of the method for decontaminating a PFOS- and PFOA-contaminated medium, and in a composition that is suitable for application.

Destruction of PFOS in Groundwater: A New In Situ Remediation Technology for Per/Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances
Ross, I.
Abstracts: American Chemical Society Conference, 2016 [Longer abstract]

This presentation discusses a demonstration of the ScisoR® technology at an AFFF site in Scandinavia. ScisoR® uses both oxidation and reduction reactions.

Adobe PDF LogoEffect of Temperature on Oxidative Transformation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) by Persulfate Activation in Water
Liu, C.S., Higgins, C.P., Wang, F., and K. Shih.
Separation and Purification Technology 91:46-51(2012)

Degradation of aqueous PFOA at different temperatures was examined using heat-activated persulfate.

Efficient Degradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) by Photocatalytic Ozonation
Huang, J., X. Wang, Z. Pan, X. Li, Y. Ling, and L. Li.
Chemical Engineering Journal 296:329-334(2016) [Abstract]

A study was conducted to evaluate the extent to which PFOA can be efficiently degraded by photocatalysis and ozonation in combination and the composition of the PFOA degradation intermediates.

Heat-Activated Persulfate Oxidation of PFOA, 6:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonate, and PFOS under Conditions Suitable for In-Situ Groundwater Remediation
Park, S., L. Lee, V. Medina, A. Zull, and S. Waisner.
Chemosphere 145:376-383(2016) [Abstract]

PFOA oxidation by heat-activated persulfate at 20-60°C and in the presence of soluble fuel components was evaluated to assess the feasibility of in situ remediation of groundwater.

Impact of ISCO Treatment on PFAA Co-Contaminants at a Former Fire Training Area
Eberle, D., R. Ball, and T.B. Boving.
Environmental Science & Technology 51(9):5127-5136(2017) [Abstract]

Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after an ISCO pilot-scale field test to assess the impact of a peroxone-activated persulfate (OxyZone) technology aimed mainly at remediation of chlorinated VOCs (PCE, 1,1,1-TCA, dichlorobenzenes) and perfluoroalkyl acids.

Innovative Oxidation Pathways for the Treatment of Traditional and Emerging Contaminants
Ahmad, Mushtaque, Ph.D. dissertation, Washington State University, 117 pp, 2012

Chapter 2 examines the degradation of PFOA by reactive species generated through catalyzed hydrogen peroxide propagation reactions. Chapter 3 discusses the potential for glucose as a persulfate activator at pH both acidic (3) and basic (12.5). Chapter 4 examines GAC regeneration potential by two superoxide systems: (a) hydrogen peroxide-bicarbonate and (b) percarbonate.

Innovative Technologies on Treating Perfluoroalkyl Substances
Chiang, D., Q. Luo, D. Woodward, and Q. Huang.
Cleanup Conference 2015Adobe PDF Logo, 13-16 September, Melbourne, Australia, WC22, 358-359, 2015

This presentation discusses how the potential and mechanisms of PFAS degradation (with PFOA as the model PFAS) by enzyme-catalyzed oxidative humification reactions was investigated.

Investigation of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Techniques for AFFF Treatment in Soil-Water Microcosms
Bishop, J., J. Hatton, D. Berggren, J. Field, K. Barzen-Hanson, T. Bruton, and W. DiGuiseppi.
Abstracts: American Chemical Society Conference, 2016 [Longer abstract]

This presentation discussed oxidation of an AFFF sample in soil-water microcosm systems, using low-pH and high-pH catalyzed hydrogen peroxide and alkaline-activated persulfate at varying application doses.

Laccase-Catalyzed Degradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid
Luo, W., J. Lu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, M. Feng, S.-Y.D. Chiang, D. Woodward, and Q. Huang.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters 2(7):198-203(2015) [Abstract]

The effects of enzyme-catalyzed oxidative humification reactions on PFOA decomposition in a mineral buffer solution were studied.

Adobe PDF LogoOxidative Decomposition of Perfluorooctanesulfonate in Water by Permanganate
Liu, C.S., Shih, K., and F. Wang
Separation and Purification Technology 87:95-100(2012)

Batch experiments were conducted to examine the oxidative decomposition of PFOS by permanganate in aqueous solutions with attention to the effects of temperature, initial permanganate concentration, and pH on PFOS decomposition efficiency.

Adobe PDF LogoPerfluorooctanoic Acid Degradation in the Presence of Fe(III) Under Natural Sunlight
Liu, D., Z. Xiu, F. Liu, G. Wu, D. Adamson, C. Newell, P. Vikesland, A.-L. Tsai, P.J. Alvarez.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 262:456-463(2013)

Decomposition of PFOA in the presence of sunlight and Fe(III) is discussed.

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Chemical Reduction

Adobe PDF LogoAbiotic Treatment Technologies for In-Site Remediation of Persistent Perfluoroalkyl Acids
Lee, L.S., S. Park, and J. Zenobio.
NICOLE Workshop, June 26, 2015, Manchester, UK. 37 slides, 2015

The efficiency of different amounts of ZVI was evaluated with and without catalyst and vitamin B12 as a function of temperature and time in aqueous batch systems (slides 17-32).

Complete Defluorination of Perfluorinated Compounds by Hydrated Electrons Generated from 3-Indole-acetic-acid in Organomodified Montmorillonite
Tian, H., J. Gao, H. Li, S.A. Boyd, and C, Gu.
Scientific Reports 6:32949(2016)

An indole derivative, 3-indole-acetic-acid, a mercury lamp (254 nm), and organomodified montmorillonite were combined to investigate the effects of hydrated electrons under mild conditions on PFOA and PFOS adsorption on clay minerals.

Efficient Reductive Decomposition of Perfluorooctanesulfonate in a High Photon Flux UV/Sulfite System
Gu, Y., W. Dong, C. Luo, and T. Liu.
Environmental Science & Technology 50: 10554-10561(2016) [Abstract]

The feasibility of employing a high photon flux UV/sulfite system to enhance PFOS decomposition via hydrated electron-induced reduction techniques was investigated.

Photo-Reductive Defluorination of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Water
Qu, Y., C.J. Zhang, F. Li, J. Chen, Q. Zhou.
Water Research 44:2939-2947(2010) [Abstract]

The efficiency of different amounts of ZVI was evaluated with and without catalyst and vitamin B12 as a function of temperature and time in aqueous batch systems (slides 17-32).

Adobe PDF LogoReductive Degradation of Perfluorinated Compounds In Water Using Mg-Aminoclay Coated Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron
Arvaniti, O.S., Y. Hwang, H.R. Andersen, A.S. Stasinakis, N.S. Thomaidis, and M. Aloupi.
Chemical Engineering Journal 262:133-139(2015)

The main objectives of this study were to investigate the removal of four PFCs [PFOA, PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)] using MgAC-coated NZVI in comparison with commercial NZVI powder and freshly synthesized uncoated NZVI, with reference to the effects of initial pH, reaction temperature, and NZVI dosage. A comparison of fresh and aged MgAC-coated NZVI for PFOS removal was also examined.

Reductive Defluorination of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate
Ochoa-Herrera, V., R. Sierra-Alvarez, A. Somogyi, N.E. Jacobsen, V.H. Wysocki, and J.A. Field.
Environmental Science & Technology 42:3260-3264(2008) [Abstract]

In an investigation of the susceptibility of technical PFOS and PFOS-branched isomers to chemical reductive dehalogenation, vitamin B12 (260 µM) provided the catalyst and Ti(III)-citrate (36 mM) the bulk reductant in anoxic aqueous solution at 70°C and pH 9. Additional information: Ochoa-Herrera's dissertation, Removal of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Related Compounds from Industrial Effluents.

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Electrochemical Oxidation

An Electric Fix for Removing Long-Lasting Chemicals in Groundwater
Blotevogel, J.
The Conversation, 10 Apr 2017

Challenges, innovations, and progress in ongoing research to develop an in situ electrolytic barrier to treat PFAS-contaminated water are discussed.

Electrochemical Treatment of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: Insights into Mechanisms and Application to Groundwater Treatment
Schaefer, C.E., C. Andaya, A. Burant, C.W. Condee, A. Urtiaga, T.J. Strathmann, and C.P. Higgins.
Chemical Engineering Journal 317:424-432(2017) [Abstract]

Electrochemical treatment of PFOA and PFOS using a nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond anode was investigated in a series of bench-scale batch experiments focused on assessing the impacts of chloride electrolyte and of hydroxyl radical scavenger TBA on both the rates of PFOA and PFOS removal and the corresponding rates of defluorination.

Excavation and Off-Site Disposal

Adobe PDF LogoMinnesota Decision Document, 3M Oakdale Disposal Site, City of Oakdale, Washington County, Minnesota
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), 12 pp, 2008

The Oakdale Dump Site was placed on EPA's Superfund list in the early 1980s due to soil and groundwater contamination from VOCs. A large volume of waste material and contaminated soil was removed and replaced with clean soil between 1984 and 1985. In 2004, 3M disclosed that industrial wastes containing perfluorinated chemicals were disposed of at the Oakdale Disposal Site. In 2008, the State of Minnesota selected excavation of soil with disposal at an off-site landfill to address the PFAS contamination.

Adobe PDF LogoMinnesota Decision Document, 3M Woodbury Disposal Site, City of Woodbury, Washington County, Minnesota
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), 11 pp, 2008

3M disclosed in 2005 that perfluorinated chemicals had been disposed of at the Woodbury Disposal Site from 1960 until 1966. In 2008, the State of Minnesota selected excavation of soil with disposal at an off-site landfill to address the PFAS contamination.

Adobe PDF LogoMinnesota Decision Document, 3M Cottage Grove Disposal Site, City of Cottage Grove, Washington County, Minnesota
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), 10 pp, 2009

The Cottage Grove Site was placed on the State of Minnesota Superfund list in 1984 due to soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCs. In 2009, the State of Minnesota selected excavation of sediment and soil with disposal at an off-site landfill to address the PFAS contamination.

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Incineration and Thermal Treatment

Adobe PDF LogoBench-Scale VEG Research & Development Study: Implementation Memorandum for Ex-Situ Thermal Desorption of Perfluoroalkyl Compounds (PFCs) in Soils
Javaherian, M.
Technical Memorandum, 26 Feb 2016

Summary of bench-scale research completed to thermally treat PFCs in soils using Vapor Energy Generator (VEG) technology.

Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Defluorination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances by Calcium Compounds during Waste Thermal Treatment
Wang, F., X. Lu, X.Y. Li, and K. Shih.
Environmental Science & Technology 49(9):5672-5680(2015) [Abstract]

The mineralization of PFASs by different calcium compounds during waste thermal treatment (>400°C) was systemically studied to evaluate the different mineralization effects and determine the most effective Ca reagent for PFAS defluorination.

Adobe PDF LogoFinal Report: Laboratory-Scale Thermal Degradation of Perfluoro-Octanyl Sulfonate and Related Substances
3M Company. UDR-TR-03-00044, 142 pp, 2003

A lab-scale incineration study of PFOS and C8 perfluorosulfonamides was conducted to determine if a properly operating full-scale (high temperature) incineration system can adequately dispose of those perfluorinated substances. The goal was to determine whether incineration of the substances is likely to be a significant source of PFOS into the environment. Additional information: Summary paper

Gas-Phase NMR Studies of the Thermolysis of Perfluorooctanoic Acid
Krusic, P.J., A.A. Marchione, and D.C. Roe.
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 126(11-12):1510-1516(2005) [Abstract]

The thermolysis of PFOA was studied kinetically by high-temperature (<400°C) gas-phase nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in both sodium borosilicate glass and quartz ampoules to evaluate the different rates at which PFOA thermolysis proceeds, depending on concentration and on the physical and chemical environment. Results were compared to the pyrolysis of ammonium perfluorooctanoate.

Influence of Calcium Hydroxide on the Fate of Perfluorooctanesulfonate under Thermal Conditions
Wang, F., X. Lu, K. Shih, and C. Liu.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 192(3):1067-1071(2011) [Abstract]

PFOS, commonly dominant in wastewater sludge, was mixed with hydrated lime to quantitatively observe their interaction under different temperatures (350-600°C).

Investigation of Waste Incineration of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers as a Potential Source of PFOA in the Environment
Taylor, P.H., T. Yamada, R.C. Striebich, J.L. Graham, and R.J. Giraud.
Chemosphere 110:17-22(2014) [Abstract]

Waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers under conditions representative of typical municipal waste combustor and medical waste incinerator operations in the U.S. was investigated to assess the potential for the formation of detectable levels of PFOA.

Mineralization Behavior of Fluorine in Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) During Thermal Treatment of Lime-Conditioned Sludge
Wang, F., K. Shih, X. Lu, and C. Liu.
Environmental Science & Technology 47(6):2621-2627(2013) [Abstract]

Researchers studied the variations in the fate and transport of fluorine in PFOS when the sludge was subject to different PFOS contents and treatment types, such as heat drying or incineration.

Summary of the Guideline on the Treatment of Wastes Containing Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS), and Its Salts in Japan
Ministry of the Environment of Japan, 14 pp, 2013

Research to support the appropriate handling and incineration of PFOS-containing solids and liquids in Japan is summarized.

Thermal Degradation of Fluorotelomer Treated Articles and Related Materials
Yamada, T., P.H. Taylor, R.C. Buck, M.A. Kaiser, and R.J. Giraud.
Chemosphere 61(7):974-984(2005) [Abstract]

The thermal degradation of a polyester/cellulose fabric substrate treated with a fluorotelomer-based acrylic polymer was tested under lab conditions representing combustion conditions typical of a municipal incinerator with an average temperature of 1000°C or greater over ~2s residence time.

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Membrane Filtration (Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration)

Biological Wastewater Treatment Followed by Physicochemical Treatment for the Removal of Fluorinated Surfactants
Schroeder, H.F., H.J. Jose, W. Gebhardt, R.F.P.M. Moreira, and J. Pinnekamp.
Water Science & Technology 61(12):3208-3215(2010) [Abstract]

Microfiltration membranes in a membrane bioreactor were applied to municipal wastewater spiked with PFOA and PFOS, and the permeates were treated using ozone or different advanced oxidation techniques.

Effect of Flux (Transmembrane Pressure) and Membrane Properties on Fouling and Rejection of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes Treating Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Containing Wastewater
Tang, C.Y., Q.S. Fu, C.S. Criddle, and J.O. Leckie.
Environmental Science & Technology 41(6):2008-2014(2007) [Abstract]

Five RO membranes and three NF membranes were tested at a feed concentration of 10 ppm PFOS in wastewater over 4 days in a systematic investigation of the PFOS rejection and permeate flux performances.

Adobe PDF LogoEvaluation of the Removal Efficiency of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water Using Nanofiltration Membranes, Active Carbon and Anion Exchange
Lindegren, Klara, Master's thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 66 pp, 2015

The efficiency of nanofiltration membranes, active carbon, and anion exchange was investigated at a drinking water treatment plant in Uppsala, Sweden, using a nanofiltration pilot with two 270NF membranes (Dow Filmtech™) connected in series and results from a GAC (Filtrasorb 400®) and anion exchange (Purolite® A-600) column experiment.

Fabrication of Novel Poly(m-Phenylene Isophthalamide) Hollow Fiber Nanofiltration Membrane for Effective Removal of Trace Amount Perfluorooctane Sulfonate from Water
Wang, T., C. Zhao, P. Li, Y. Li, and J. Wang.
Journal of Membrane Science 477:74-85(2015) [Abstract]

A hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane was fabricated from poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA) using a dry-jet wet spinning technology for sustainable water recovery from water containing trace amounts of PFOS. PFOS rejection experiments were carried out at trans-membrane pressures ranging from 4x105 Pa to 1.0x106 Pa and PFOS concentrations from 50-500 µg/L.

Adobe PDF LogoLeachate Treatment Pilot Study at Kandiyohi County Landfill
Oskoui, K. and L. Kleindl.
RAM/SWANA Conference 2014, 64 slides, 2014 [Longer abstract]

A 2-week pilot test and an engineering study of the LeachBuster™ single-pass membrane system was conducted to demonstrate how the system would work in solving Kandiyohi County's (Minnesota) landfill leachate issues. Inert leachate waste product concentrate was returned to the landfill, and treated effluent was discharged to a sedimentation basin for infiltration to groundwater. Testing for perfluorochemicals was done at ppt concentrations [slides 29-31].

Nanofiltration and Granular Activated Carbon Treatment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids
Appleman, T.D., E.R.V. Dickenson, C. Bellona, and C.P. Higgins.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 260:740-746(2013) [Abstract]

The efficacy of NF and GAC adsorption in removing a suite of PFAAs from water was investigated using virgin flat-sheet NF membranes (NF270, Dow/Filmtec) and small-scale columns packed with Calgon Filtrasorb®300 (F300) carbon. Additional information: Appleman's 2012 thesisAdobe PDF Logo

Nanofiltration for Trace Organic Contaminant Removal: Structure, Solution, and Membrane Fouling Effects on the Rejection of Perfluorochemicals
Steinle-Darling, E. and M. Reinhard.
Environmental Science & Technology 42(14):5292-5297(2008) [Abstract]

Rejections of 15 PFCs—5 perfluorinated sulfonates, 9 perfluorinated carboxylates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)—by four nanofiltration membranes (NF270, NF200, DK, and DL) were measured at increasing and decreasing pH. Accumulation of PFCs on membranes was measured after the completion of rejection experiments.

Adobe PDF LogoPerfluorooctane Sulfonate Removal by Nanofiltration Membrane: The Effect and Interaction of Magnesium Ion/Humic Acid
Zhao, C., C.Y. Tang, P. Li, P. Adrian, and G. Hu.
Journal of Membrane Science 503:31-41(2016) [Abstract]

A novel nanofiltration membrane (NF270) was investigated for the interaction and effect of Mg2+ ion and humic acid in the feed solution on PFOS removal efficiency and total permeate flux.

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Removal by Nanofiltration Membrane: The Role of Calcium Ions
Zhao, C., J. Zhang, G. He, T. Wang, D. Hou, and Z. Luan.
Chemical Engineering Journal 233:224-232(2013) [Abstract]

The NF270 membrane was used to remove PFOS from simulated surface water containing calcium ions in an investigation of the effects of PFOS concentration, calcium concentration, and pH on PFOS rejection.

Removal of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate by a Gravity-Driven Membrane: Filtration Performance and Regeneration Behavior
Guo, H., J. Wang, Y. Han, Y. Feng, K. Shih, and C.Y. Tang.
Separation and Purification Technology 174:136-144(2017) [Abstract]

Gravity-driven filtration using a highly porous nanofibrous membrane (water permeability of 354.9 LMH/kPa) was systematically investigated for PFOS removal under a wide range of water chemistry conditions, followed by an assessment of methanol rinsing as a membrane regeneration process.

Removal of Perfluorooctane Sulfonates from Water by a Hybrid Coagulation-Nanofiltration Process
Yu, Y., C. Zhao, L. Yu, P. Li, T. Wang, and Y Xu.
Chemical Engineering Journal 289:7-16(2016) [Abstract]

In an investigation of the effect of coagulation pretreatment on the removal efficiency of PFOS by nanofiltration, NF270 and HYDRACORE membranes were used to test the PFOS rejections in three different solutions: deionized water, humic acid solution, and coagulation solution. Accumulation on the membranes was characterized.

Removal of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Groundwater by Nanofiltration Membrane
Boonya-atichart, A., S.K. Boontanon, and N. Boontanon.
Water Science and Technology 74(10):(2016) [Abstract]

The removal efficiency of a nanofiltration membrane for PFOA in spiked deionized water and spiked groundwater samples was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS.

Removal of PFOA by Hybrid Membrane Filtration Using PAC and Hydrotalcite
Rattanaoudom, R. and C. Visvanathan.
Desalination and Water Treatment 32:262-270(2011) [Abstract]

An adsorption-based hybrid membrane technology to remove high PFOA concentration from industrial sources compared results from a combination of hydrotalcite-nanofiltration to direct membrane filtration.

Removal of PFOS, PFOA and Other Perfluoroalkyl Acids at Water Reclamation Plants in South East Queensland Australia
Thompson, J., G. Eaglesham, J. Reungoat, Y. Poussade, M. Bartkowf, M. Lawrence, and J.F. Mueller.
Chemosphere 82:9-17(2011) [Abstract]

At two water reclamation plants in Australia, the first plant utilized adsorption and filtration methods alongside ozonation, while the second used membrane processes and advanced oxidation to produce purified recycled water. Researchers tested for the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids after each treatment procedure.

Use of Reverse Osmosis Membranes to Remove Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from Semiconductor Wastewater
Tang, C.Y.Y., Q.S. Fu, A.P. Robertson, C.S. Criddle, and J.O. Leckie.
Environmental Science & Technology 40(23):7343-7349(2006) [Abstract]

In an investigation of the feasibility of using RO membranes for treating semiconductor wastewater containing PFOS, commercial RO membranes were characterized in terms of permeability, salt rejection, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and membrane surface zeta potential (streaming potential measurements). Filtration tests were performed to determine the membrane flux and PFOS rejection.

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Pump and Treat

Adobe PDF LogoEvaluation of the Efficiency of Treatment Techniques in Removing Perfluoroalkyl Substances from Water
Lundgren, Sandra, Master's thesis, Uppsala University, 66 pp, 2014

PFAS removal efficiency was investigated using six different water types with varying concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Treatment techniques evaluated included anion exchange using MIEX(r) resins, coagulation with iron (III) chloride, adsorption using powdered activated carbon, and nanofiltration membrane.

PFOS Mobility and Remediation in the Vadose and Groundwater Zone of Glaciofluvial Sediments, Gardermoen, Norway
Tuttle, K.J., B. Wejden, A. Fevang, and J. Skjefstad.
NORDROCS 2012: 4th Nordic Joint Meeting on Remediation of Contaminated Sites, International Conference, September 18-21, 2012, Oslo, Norway. 4 pp paper and 13 slides, 2012

When ~40 kg of PFOS in fire suppressants was accidentally released into an infiltration gallery for surface-water runoff at the Oslo International Airport in 2010, the remediation approach was to treat the groundwater to 300 ng/L PFOS via an activated carbon filter before re-infiltrating the treated water to flush the remaining PFOS from the soil. The re-infiltration design was modeled to limit the lateral migration of PFOS during infiltration and determine lateral re-infiltration sites and rates. SlidesAdobe PDF Logo; PaperAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoRemediation of Perfluorinated Alkyl Chemicals at a Former Fire-Fighting Training Area
Paterson, L., T. Siemens-Kennedy, and D. Sweeney.
RemTech 2008: Remediation Technologies Symposium, Paper 34, 6 pp, 2008

This paper presents a summary of the chemical characterization of PFASs, development of risk-based criteria for PFASs at the site, and remediation efforts to date associated with PFAS and hydrocarbon removal.

Adobe PDF LogoMinnesota Decision Document, 3M Oakdale Disposal Site, City of Oakdale, Washington County, Minnesota
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), 12 pp, 2008

The Oakdale Dump Site was placed on EPA's Superfund list in the early 1980s due to soil and groundwater contamination from VOCs. A pump-out system was installed in 1984-1985 to control VOCs migration. In 2004, 3M disclosed that industrial wastes containing perfluorinated chemicals were disposed of at the Oakdale Disposal Site. The State of Minnesota selected enhanced groundwater recovery to expand and improve the existing groundwater pump-out system to prevent the migration of PFAS contamination. The extracted groundwater will be treated by an air stripper to remove VOCs followed by GAC prior to discharge to sanitary sewer.

Adobe PDF LogoMinnesota Decision Document, 3M Woodbury Disposal Site, City of Woodbury, Washington County, Minnesota
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), 11 pp, 2008

3M disclosed in 2005 that perfluorinated chemicals had been disposed at the Woodbury Disposal Site from 1960 until 1966. In 2008, the State of Minnesota determined that the existing groundwater pump-out system was an effective barrier to the migration of perfluorinated contaminants.

Adobe PDF LogoMinnesota Decision Document, 3M Cottage Grove Disposal Site, City of Cottage Grove, Washington County, Minnesota
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), 10 pp, 2009

The Cottage Grove Site was placed on the State of Minnesota Superfund list in 1984 due to soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCs. A groundwater pump-out system was installed to prevent VOC-contaminated ground water from reaching the Mississippi River. The State of Minnesota selected enhanced groundwater recovery to expand and improve the existing groundwater pump-out system to prevent the migration of PFAS contamination. The extracted groundwater will be treated by an on-site wastewater treatment plant equipped with a GAC finishing system prior to discharge to the Mississippi River.

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Solidification/Stabilization

Adobe PDF LogoImmobilization of PFASs Using Activated Carbon and Aluminum Hydroxide
Birk, G.M.
Emerging Contaminants Summit, March 1-2, 2016, Westminster, Colorado. 36 slides, 2016

This presentation reports on the results of the use of RemBind™ and RemBind Plus™ on soils contaminated with PFASs at two airport fire training grounds in Australia. The presentation also introduces PerfluorAd, a cationized cellulose-based raw material that is designed to bond with and precipitate PFASs in aqueous media. Additional information: Longer abstract; Rembind posterAdobe PDF Logo; PerfluorAd posterAdobe PDF Logo

Remediation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Contaminated Soils by Modified Clay Adsorbent: A Risk-Based Approach
Das, P., V.A. Arias e., V. Kambala, M. Mallavarupu, and R. Naidu.
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 224:1714(2013) [Abstract]

Researchers investigated the removal of PFOS from impacted waters and fixation of PFOS in impacted soils using a novel modified clay adsorbent. Treatability studies were performed by treating the PFOS-contaminated soils with MatCARE™ (10% w/w) and then incubating at 25 and 37°C temperatures for a period of one year.

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Sonochemistry

Effect of Sound Frequency and Initial Concentration on the Sonochemical Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)
Rodriguez-Freire, L., R. Balachandran, R. Sierra-Alvarez, and M. Keswani.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 300:662-669(2015) [Abstract]

Different levels of PFOS concentration and sound frequency were tested to evaluate their effects on the sonochemical degradation of PFOS.

Enhancing Decomposition Rate of Perfluorooctanoic Acid by Carbonate Radical Assisted Sonochemical Treatment
Thi, L.-A.P., H.-T. Do, and S.-L. Lo.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21(5):1875-1880(2014) [Abstract]

PFOA decomposition by sonochemical treatment was investigated to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate concentrations, N2 saturation, and pH on decomposition rates and defluorination efficiencies.

Adobe PDF LogoSonochemical Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Landfill Groundwater: Environmental Matrix Effects
Cheng, J., C.D. Vecitis, H. Park, B.T. Mader, and M.R. Hoffmann.
Environmental Science & Technology 42(21):8057-8063(2008) [Abstract]

Scientists evaluated (1) the effect of various organic compounds on the sonochemical decomposition rates of PFOS and PFOA; (2) whether VOCs and dissolved natural organic matter have similar or different effects on sonochemical rate reduction for PFOS and PFOA; and (3) the effects of a combined process of ozonation and sonolysis on the rate loss for PFOS and PFOA in landfill groundwater.

Sonochemical Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Groundwater: Kinetic Effects of Matrix Inorganics
Cheng, J., Vecitis, C.D., Park, H., Mader, B.T., and M.R. Hoffmann.
Environmental Science & Technology 44(1):445-450(2010) [Abstract]

Researchers investigated the negative kinetic effects on PFOA and PFOS sonochemical degradation rates of organic constituents in groundwater taken from beneath a landfill, as well as the effect of pH adjustment prior to sonolysis.

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Other

Adobe PDF LogoElectrochemical Treatment of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Groundwater Impacted by Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFFs)
Schaefer, C., C. Anday, A. Urtiag, E. McKenzie, and C. Higgins.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, 295:170-175(2015)

Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate electrochemical treatment for the decomposition of PFOA, PFOS, and other perfluoroalkyl acids.

Photocatalytic Degradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid
Zhang, P. and Z. Li.
Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification: Lecture Notes in Nanoscale Science and Technology 22:79-110(2014) [Abstract]

An overview is provided of recent advances in the photocatalytic degradation of PFOA by Indium(III) oxide, photocatalytic degradation of PFOA by beta-Gallium(III) oxide nanomaterials, and their potential applications in wastewater treatment. See additional information on the application of beta-Gallium(III) oxide to PFOA in another paperAdobe PDF Logo (Zhao et al. 2012).

Adobe PDF LogoRemediation of Perfluoroalkyl Contaminated Aquifers Using an In-Situ Two-Layer Barrier: Laboratory Batch and Column Study
Huang, Q.
SERDP Project ER-2127, 32 pp, 2013

The primary project objective was to investigate the feasibility of using a PRB to induce effective enzyme-catalyzed humification reactions for in situ remediation of PFCs in groundwater.

Adobe PDF LogoTreatment of Perfluorinated Compounds and Nitroaromatics by Photocatalysis in the Presence of Ultraviolet and Solar Light
Tellez, Mario H., Master's thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
AFIT-ENV-14-M-64, 104 pp, 2014

2,4-DNT, PFOA, and PFOS were exposed to TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 immobilized on glass slides under sunlight and UV light in atmospheric conditions and neutral pH levels.

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