U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Online Bibliographies
USGS National Research Program, Transport Phenomena in Fractured Rock
Since the description of fractured rock is highly dependent on the scale at which one chooses to observe it, it is necessary to develop mathematical models of transport phenomena in fractured rock under alternative conceptualizations of the medium. A portion of this study shall be devoted to the development of these models and an investigation of the parameters which arise. In addition, physical situations where each conceptualization is applicable, and the adaptability of field measurements to these conceptualizations shall be evaluated.
Bibliography of Fractured Bedrock Characterization and Remediation
This bibliography was created from the National Ground Water Information Center, the world's largest private library collection on ground water. The center is home to Ground Water On-Line an on-line card catalogue of references contained in the library.

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Fractured Bedrock Web Sites
Environmental & Engineering Geophysical Society
EEGS is the premier society championing the development and appropriate use of environmental and engineering geophysics.
Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Research Site, USGS New Jersey Water Science Center
In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began studies of contamination in fractured sedimentary bedrock in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, N.J. In 2001, the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program initiated research at the NAWC to complement and expand the research being conducted on ground-water flow and contaminant transport in fractured bedrock at its Mirror Lake, New Hampshire Research Site. The NAWC site was chosen because the general hydrogeologic framework was well defined and the site contained extensive contamination over a range of geochemical conditions. Site ground water contains volatile organic compounds (VOC's) that include TCE, DCE and vinyl chloride. The research will provide understanding of the physical, chemical, and microbial processes that affect the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured sedimentary rock aquifers, including the role of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) as a long-term source. The research also will develop methods for cost effective subsurface characterization.
Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Research Site, USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program
The NAWC Research Site, West Trenton, NJ, is located 4 miles north of Trenton, NJ. The fractured bedrock at the site has been contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE)--a chlorinated solvent. The plume of TCE was caused by leakage of TCE from aboveground service lines and storage tanks. The TCE was used as a heat transfer agent during jet engine tests. An estimated 100,000 gallons of TCE was lost through leakage and spills at the site. Although dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) has not been identified directly at the site, it is likely that liquid TCE has flowed vertically downward and in the down-dip direction of the fractured sedimentary rocks. The aqueous phase plume of dissolved TCE has flowed along the strike and the up-dip directions of the sedimentary rocks. There is evidence of biodegradation of TCE, probably and at least in part due to the presence of a jet-fuel oil spill that overlaps part of the plume.
Mirror Lake Toxics Site
Fractured-rock aquifers near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, have highly varied andcomplex hydrologic characteristics. They are widely distributed near land surface and are frequently affected by contamination. Uncertainty in the rates and paths of ground-water movement in fractured rock commonly prevents the identification of human and environmental risks and the determination of effective remedial strategies. USGS scientists are developing methods to characterize the movement of water and contaminants through fractured rock.
Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3)
The Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3) is designed to conduct tests that measure the permeability of fractures, and collect water samples for geochemical analyses from short intervals of boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers. The equipment was designed so that it is readily transportable from site to site, easily assembled, and can be adjusted to accommodate different borehole conditions, such as fracture density that may vary from one location to the next. The BAT3 is also designed with data-acquisition equipment that integrates with a laptop computer to store, display, and interpret hydraulic data as it is collected. The BAT3�s compact and portable design has enabled it to be shipped at reasonable cost to several sites throughout the eastern United States, including sites with contaminated ground water, in order to characterize these fractured rock aquifers.
FracMan
The FracMan software suite provides an integrated set of tools for discrete feature network (DFN) analysis of fractured and non-fractured heterogeneous rock masses. FracMan includes tools for discrete feature data analysis, geologic modeling, spatial analysis, visualization, flow and transport, and geomechanics.
Bedrock Bioremediation Center
The Bedrock Bioremediation Center (BBC) at the University of New Hampshire (UNH), specializes in multidisciplinary research using naturally occurring microbes that live along the fractures in bedrock to remediate organically contaminated bedrock aquifers. The Center is comprised of a consortium of faculty from the University's Environmental Research Group (ERG), and the UNH Departments of Civil Engineering, Microbiology, Earth Sciences, and Natural Resources.
American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA)
ARMA serves as an information repository on the development of rock mechanics and rock engineering, and promotes the development of knowledge within the field. It conducts educational workshops, topical symposia, and sponsors the U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium.
Working Group on Water-Rock Interaction
The main purpose of this group is to organize symposia that are held every three years and are co-sponsored by various earth science associations. The Working Group belongs to the International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry (IAGC). The Working Group coordinates research in different trends: geology and hydrogeology, geochemistry and hydrochemistry and environmental studies.
U.S. Geological Survey
Lists 4359 references when asked to search "fractured bedrock".

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