U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: January 1, 2011

Point of Contact:
Wilfredo Palomino
290 Broadway
New York NY 10007-1866 
Tel: 212-637-4179 
Email: palomino.wilfredo@

Eastman Kodak Company-Kodak Park
Rochester, NY


The uppermost bedrock unit is the southward-dipping Rochester Shale,
which conformably overlies the Irondequoit Limestone. The Rochester Shale is approximately 100 feet thick, with intermittent dolostone and limestone beds. Infrequent thin clay beds and severely weathered silt and clay partings were observed in the RFI soil and well borings. Fractures in this unit are generally parallel to the near-horizontal bedding and typically occur in frequent argillaceous bedding partings. The Rochester Shale was
described as weak and very friable, and was unable to withstand standard rock coring.

Throughout most of the site (generally the central portion), the overburden is unsaturated, and the uppermost water-bearing unit is the top of the Rochester Shale. However, at the western, northern, and eastern periphery of the site, the overburden/ bedrock contact drops in elevation and the lower portions of the overburden become saturated.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Fractured Bedrock


There are multiple plumes from multiple sources at this 2000 acre site. Over 33 separate pump and treat systems are being used to contain these plumes which occur primarily in the bedrock.

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - 2,4-Dichlorophenol (26,000 µg/L)
  • - Pyridine (67,000 µg/L)
  • - 1,2-Dichloroethane (25,000 µg/L)
  • - 1,2-Dichloroethene (220,000 µg/L)
  • - 1,1-Dichloroethene (180,000 µg/L)
  • - 1,2-Dichloropropane (160,000 µg/L)
  • - Dioxane (71,000 µg/L)
  • - Methylene chloride (810,000 µg/L)
  • - Tetrahydrofuran (510,000 µg/L)
  • - Vinyl chloride (22,000 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Pump and Treat
Kodak is currently operating 33 ground water pumping systems. While the plumes are shrinking, investigations at Kodak Park have shown that a significant contaminant mass has diffused into the rock matrix, where it resides in immobile pore water, within the primary porosity of the rock.
Remediation Goals:

The contaminants of concern listed above are a sampling of the high concentration organics on site.


Due to the release of dense non-aqueous phase liquids and the fractured bedrock underlying this site, restoration of ground water quality to drinking water standards may not be technically achievable (even though NYS classifies all ground water as potential drinking and its goal is to restore aquifers, the State recognizes that there are circumstances where this is not possible). Therefore, the general approach that has been used is hydraulic containment of all ground water on site. Ground water recovery methods in use include overburden french drains, conventional pumping wells, hydro fractured bedrock wells, and fractured bedrock trenches created through controlled blasting (using explosives on-site to create rock fractures). Recovered water is treated at Kodak's wastewater treatment plant.


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