U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: January 1, 2011

Point of Contact:
Kevin Willis
290 Broadway
New York 10007-1866 
Tel: 212-637-4252 
Email: willis.kevin@

Hooker Chemical S-Area
Niagara Falls, NY


The land:fill lies atop approximately 30 feet of soil, clay, till, and man made fill on an area reclaimed from the Niagara River. Beneath these materials is the Lockport Dolomite which has several fracture zones.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)
  • - Fractured Bedrock


The full extent of the plume has not been defined.

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - 1,1-Dichloroethene (0 µg/L)
  • - Endosulfan I (0 µg/L)
  • - Hexachlorobenzene (0 µg/L)
  • - Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (0 µg/L)
  • - Mirex (0 µg/L)
  • - Hexachlorobutadiene (0 µg/L)
  • - Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (0 µg/L)
  • - 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (0 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

  • - Pumping Tests

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Chemical Oxidation (In Situ)
    • Permanganate
  • - Pump and Treat
Overburden pumping began in 1996. The landfill was surrounded by a barrier wall that extends to the bedrock. A drainage collection system (series of french drains) that drain to a common collection point to help dewater the landfill and overburden is operational. In addition there are containment purge wells that completed as regular recovery wells. Locations of some are such that they collect DNAPL.

The bedrock contaminant recovery wells are placed in three distinct water-bearing zones within the bedrock aquifer: (1) a Shallow Bedrock Zone consisting of the more-highly fractured upper 30 feet of bedrock; (2) an
In addition to chemicals listed above chlorobenzenes were also disposed in quantity at the site.

Intermediate Bedrock Zone between the depths of approximately 30 and 100 feet below the top of bedrock; and (3) a Deep Bedrock Zone between the depths of approximately 100 and 150 feet below the top of bedrock.
Remediation Goals:

Cleanup to the extent practicable.


waste buried in the landfill. Their operations have also reduced the loadings of toxic chemicals to the Niagara River. Approximately 320,000 gallons of contaminated ground water are treated per day, with the treated effluent discharged to the Niagara River via a permitted outfall. Since the startup of the S-Area remedial systems in 1996, over 600 million
gallons of contaminated ground water have been treated and 230,000 gallons of NAPL have been collected for
incineration. Over 130,000 gallons of the collected NAPL have been transported to a commercial incinerator in Texas for treatment.

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