U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: December 31, 2010

Point of Contact:
Frank Klanchar
USEPA 1650 Arch Street
Mail Code: 3HS22
Philadelphia PA 19103-2029 
Tel: 215-814-3218 
Email: klanchar.frank@

Centre County Kepone
State College, PA


The geologic units underlying the Site are represented by a structurally duplicated sequence of carbonate rocks of Ordovican age comprising the Loysburg Group and Bellefonte Dolomite. The Bellefonte Dolomite, comprised in the Site vicinity by the Tea Creek and Dale Summit Members, is the lowest stratigraphic unit observed within the limit of investigation. The Tea Creek Member consists of a medium-light gray,
cryptocrystalline dolomite that varies from finely laminated to massive. The Dale Summit Sandstone Member occurs below the Tea Creek Member and is characterized as a fine to coarse grained conglomerate sandstone.
The Loysburg Group overlies the Bellefonte Dolomite. The Loysburg Group consists of interbedded dark gray
limestone, dolomitic limestone, and minor dolomite.

The bedrock beneath the Site lies within the northwest limb of the Nittany Mountain syncline. Bedding planes strike northeast-southwest, and dip approximately 25 degrees to the southeast toward the axis of the
syncline. A thrust fault, apparently related to the later stages of the Nittany syncline folding event, parallels the bedding strike through the Site. The faulting is responsible for the structural duplication of the major rock units on site.

Groundwater movement at the Site occurs as conduit and diffuse flow. Conduit flow occurs along bedding-plane partings and fractures enlarged by solutioning. Diffuse flow is through the rock matrix. Groundwater storage in bedrock occurs in both the primary porosity of the rock matrix and secondary porosity, enhanced by solutioning. Dissolution features are more strongly developed in the limestone of the Loysburg Group than in the Bellefonte Dolomite. The dominant conduit flow is along the fault which bisects the Site and brings the dolomite east of the fault in contact with the limestone to the west. High hydraulic conductivity, or permeability along solutioned zones, functions as a drain for the groundwater system;
surrounding diffuse flow zones tend to drain toward the conduit flow zone.

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)
  • - Fractured Bedrock


Information on the vertical and lateral extent of the plume was not available in the ROD or 5-year reviews.

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Benzene (18,000 µg/L)
  • - 1,2-Dichloroethene (19,000 µg/L)
  • - Tetrachloroethene (6,400 µg/L)
  • - Trichloroethene (78,000 µg/L)
  • - Vinyl chloride (330 µg/L)
  • - Toluene (190,000 µg/L)
  • - Xylenes (92,000 µg/L)
  • - Kepone (0 µg/L)
  • - Mirex (1 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

No technologies selected.

Remedial Technologies:

  • - Pump and Treat
The pump and treat system came online in 2000 and has been ongoing since. In 2003 the packed column air stripper was taken off line.
Remediation Goals:

MCLs when available.


As of July 2009 the treatment plant had treated over 150 million gallons and removed 5,400 pounds of VOCs. Groundwater concentrations have been falling.

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