U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Fractured Bedrock Project Profiles

Last Updated: August 3, 2011

Point of Contact:
Galen Kenoyer
601 W. 5th Street
Suite 760
Los Angeles CA 90071 
Tel: 213-623-4175 
Fax: 213-947-4183
Email: galen.kenoyer@
rmtinc.com

Active Telephone Facility
Northern, CA


Hydrogeology:

Sandy soils over fractured and weathered bedrock (siltstone, claystone, and sandstone - -which generally have low permeability).

Targeted Environmental Media:
  • - Fractured Bedrock
  • - Light Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs)

Contaminants:

Not identified

Major Contaminants and Maximum Concentrations:
  • - Diesel fuel (0 µg/L)

Site Characterization Technologies:

No technologies selected.


Remedial Technologies:

  • - Flushing (In Situ)
    • Surfactant
  • - Pump and Treat
  • - Multi Phase Extraction
Comments:
Diesel fuel has persisted in the environment for 18 years even after the use of multi-phase extraction (MPE). For the pilot study, multiple injections of non-ionic surfactant via a central well were implemented while vacuum-enhanced MPE was performed at downgradient wells. Results of the pilot study included an increase in mass removal, compared to prior efforts performed without surfactants.
Remediation Goals:

Not identified in the references reviewed


Status:

Hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOC) typically have limited solubility in water because the contaminants partition and sorb onto the bedrock or soil matrix. The use of a surfactant-enhanced remediation approach allows contaminant mass to desorb and dissolve from the solid to the liquid phase and also causes water to flow through low-permeability soils and rock.


Lessons Learned:

Not identified in the references reviewed.

References:
Kenoyer,Galen, D'Sa, Christopher, McLinn,Gene, and Ivey, George A. Surfactant Enhanced High Vacuum Dual Phase Extraction (HVDPE) Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Bedrock Aquifer - (In-situ Case Study). Presented at the 26th Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. October 18-21, 2010.

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