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INTERACTION OF MICROBIAL & ABIOTIC PROCESSES IN SOIL LEADING TO THE (BIO)CONVERSION AND ULTIMATE ATTENUATION OF NEW INSENSITIVE MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS
Field, J.A., J. Chorover, R. Sierra-Alvarez, L. Abrell, and J. Coffey II.
SERDP Project ER-2221, 204 pp, 2016

2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) are two insensitive munitions compounds (IMCs) used to replace the conventional munitions TNT and RDX, respectively. Relatively little is known about how these IMCs will perform in the environment with respect to their biotransformation and retention in soil systems. The objective of Project ER-2221 was to evaluate the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors contributing to IMC attenuation in the soil, leading to the formation of environmentally safe end points. Anaerobic conditions were found to favor the biological and/or chemical reduction of the nitro groups, leading to the formation of amines intermediates. The amines retained toxicity; thus, further conversion was required. The amines formed from DNAN eventually became covalently incorporated into soil organic matter. The amine from NTO was mineralized by soil bacteria or manganese dioxide to carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/46731/436800/file/ER-2221%20Final%20Report.pdf



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