U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for May 16-31, 2018

Market/Commercialization Information
DOE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES FORUM
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Washington, DC.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5954, Solicitation EM_BUSINESS_FORUM_7-2018

The next Business Opportunities Forum by DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been scheduled for July 31, 2018, from 10:15 AM - 12:00 PM, in the large auditorium, ground floor in the Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC. Topics will include a discussion of the status of ongoing and upcoming procurement opportunities and the latest news on doing business with DOE EM. There is no charge to attend, but pre-registration by July 25, 2018, is required. For those unable to attend the event in person, DOE will offer WebEx capability; pre-registration is also required to receive the connection information. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DOE/PAM/HQ/EM_BUSINESS_FORUM_7-2018/listing.html


IDIQ CONTRACT FOR SMALL BUSINESS A/E ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Louisville, KY.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5956, Solicitation W912QR18R0026, 2018

This announcement constitutes a request for submittal of SF330 packages and is open only to small businesses under NAICS code 541330. Up to two firms will be selected. The proposed services, which will be obtained by negotiated firm-fixed-price contracts, are for a variety of A/E services for military and civil environmental program support projects primarily within the Great Lakes and Ohio River Division mission boundaries. The maximum cumulative contract value for each contract is $9M, for a total of $18M between the two contracts, which will be administered by the USACE Louisville District during the 5-year contract period. Projects will be awarded by individual task orders. Studies, designs, and other A/E services under this contract are anticipated to range from around $100,000 to $1,000,000 per task order. The estimated start date is November 2018. Firms must be capable of performing work on a wide variety of HTRW sites in addition to other environmental sites in a manner that complies with federal, state, and local regulations and laws, and within timeframes required. SF330 packages must be received by 2:00 PM ET on July 25, 2018. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA27/W912QR18R0026/listing.html


IDIQ CONTRACT FOR SDVOSB A/E ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Louisville, KY.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5960, Solicitation W912QR18R0028, 2018

This announcement constitutes a request for submittal of SF330 packages and is open only to service-disabled veteran-owned small businesses under NAICS code 541330. The top-ranked firm will be awarded the first contract, and the next-ranked firm will be awarded the second contract. The proposed services, which will be obtained by negotiated firm-fixed-price contracts, are for A/E services for environmental support projects primarily within the Great Lakes and Ohio River Division mission boundaries. Projects will be awarded by individual task orders. Studies, designs, and other A/E services under this contract are anticipated to range from approximately $100,000 to $1,000,000 per task order. The maximum cumulative contract value is $9M. The contract period is for five years with no options. Firms must be capable of performing work on a wide variety of hazardous, toxic, and radiological sites and projects regulated under CERCLA and RCRA in addition to other environmental sites in a manner that complies with federal, state, and local regulations and laws, and within timeframes required. All SF330 packages must be received by 2:00 PM ET on July 31, 2018. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA27/W912QR18R0028/listing.html


NATIONAL PESTICIDE INFORMATION CENTER
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Funding Opportunity EPA-HQ-OPP-2018-001, 2018

U.S. EPA is soliciting applications from eligible organizations to support a National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC), a program that provides the public with objective, science-based information on pesticide-related subjects through a website, toll-free telephone service, and outreach. Trained experts respond to questions on the risks associated with pesticide use, restrictions on pesticide use, who to contact for regulatory enforcement, how to report information on a potential incident, and more. Secondarily, NPIC staff will collect information on suspected incidents that callers give voluntarily. July 30, 2018, is the closing date for applications. A single award is anticipated. Total funding is estimated at $5M. http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=305719


INCREASED TRANSPARENCY AND CONTROL OF MERCURY IN PERU
Department of State, Bureau of Oceans International Environmental-Scientific, Funding Opportunity SFOP0005231, 2018

The project goal is to support Peru's relevant government agencies to increase transparency, traceability, and control over the elemental mercury handling system in Peru through the development of practical policies, regulations, and implementation tools for handling, tracking, and securing mercury. August 1, 2018, is the closing date for applications. Eligibility is limited to U.S. non-profit/nongovernmental organizations subject to section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. tax code, foreign not-for-profit/nongovernmental organizations, educational institutions, and public international organizations. A single award is anticipated with an estimated award ceiling of $450,000. http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=306637



Cleanup News
CLEANUP AND CLOSURE OF THE 2009 JET FUEL PIPELINE LEAK
Travis Air Force Base Fact Sheet, 2 pp, 2017

Fuel releases were detected in 2009 from a pipeline formerly used to deliver kerosene-based JP-8 jet fuel to Travis AFB. After Travis AFB stopped the leak and finished initial responses to protect human health and the environment, the field team used several cleanup technologies to remove the fuel hydrocarbons as efficiently and cost effectively as possible. Initially, passive skimmers were used to collect the fuel that floated on the water table, followed by dual-phase extraction to remove both fuel and contaminated water. With the addition of vacuum extraction, the system removed over 7,700 lb of fuel constituents in less than a year. Although injections of oxygen-releasing compound were implemented for biodegradation of fuel constituents in the contaminated soil, complete cleanup of residual fuel from the clay-rich soil required a more aggressive technology, and a Vapor Energy Generator (VEG) system was used to achieve fuel concentration reductions in the 96-99% range. The VEG system used steam injected into the subsurface to heat the soil, mobilize the fuel constituents, and speed up fuel removal. The system routed extracted fuel back into the burner assembly for destruction, and the extra heat generated more steam to keep the cleanup process going. http://www.travis.af.mil/Portals/30/documents/Final%20Sixth%20Jet%20Fuel%20Leak%20Fact%20Sheet%2003-14-2017.pdf

SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COMPLETION REPORT, CASPER PCE PLUMES ORPHAN SITE, CASPER, WYOMING
Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Cheyenne. 169 pp, 2017

The Casper PCE Plume Orphan Site occupies ~150 acres in an area that comprises residential, commercial, and industrial neighborhoods. Environmental testing in the late 1980s revealed the presence of PCE in groundwater in downtown and north Casper, as well as in the indoor air of some homes. Groundwater PCE concentrations less than one mile downgradient are increasing over time, indicating that the Casper Dry Cleaner and/or residual subsurface solvent mass in the surrounding vicinity is acting as a source zone to sustain the plume. Active soil vapor extraction (SVE) was selected as a means to prevent soil gas to groundwater partitioning, limit soil migration to groundwater impacts, and control vapor intrusion in the vicinity of the dry cleaner. This report documents the SVE system installation; system startup, initial monitoring, and operation and maintenance; performance monitoring of the SVE remedy and evaluation and reporting requirements; and references. http://deq.wyoming.gov/media/attachments/Solid%20%26%20Hazardous%20Waste/Active%20Sites/Casper%20PCE%20Plume/Casper%20PCE%20Plumes%20Orphan%20Site%20SVE%20CCR%20Final%207-10-17.pdf See also the MNA remedy implementation work plan and EISB construction completion report for this site at http://deq.wyoming.gov/shwd/active-sites/resources/casper-pce-plume/.

UJIMA VILLAGE APARTMENTS/FORMER ATHENS TANK FARM
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Los Angeles Region, GeoTracker Website, 2018

The 122-acre former Athens Tank Farm located in Willowbrook was a petroleum products storage and distribution facility owned and operated by Exxon Mobil Oil Corporation from the 1920s to mid 1960s. The site now is occupied primarily by a regional park, apartment buildings, and some modular buildings. A Phase I soil vapor extraction (SVE) system with a thermal oxidizer (Thermox) rated to extract and treat up to 500 SCFM of soil vapor has operated at the site since 2014. The progress report for the first quarter of 2018 relates the total estimated mass of VOCs removed to date as 385,334 lb and the total estimated mass of methane removed to date as 54,447 lb. The Phase II horizontal remediation well (HRW) SVE system was installed in 2017. Phase II system shakedown and startup activities are ongoing due to system adjustments and component replacements, and the system is expected to be operational during the second quarter of 2018. System startup and performance monitoring of Phase III air/biosparge activities is to follow completion of the HRW shakedown. Baseline sampling of sparge wells, SVE wells, observation wells, and a background well for natural attenuation indicators, including nutrients, geochemical parameters and COCs, has been completed. http://geotracker.waterboards.ca.gov/profile_report?global_id=SLT4L3741812

IN SITU, LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL REMEDIATION OF LNAPL WITH PESTICIDES AND OTHER RECALCITRANT COMPOUNDS
Dablow, J., J. Baldock, J. Dinham, and K. Johnson.
RemTech 2017: Remediation Technologies Symposium. Presentation 33, 23 slides, 2017

Site investigation activities at a former pesticide manufacturing plant in the UK identified impacts from kerosene and dieldrin to saturated gravels that overlie the regional chalk bedrock. LNAPL was encountered in site wells and a contaminant mass of ~7,000 kg was estimated in the target source zone. To mitigate the risks presented by the LNAPL and high levels of dieldrin to a nearby river and the groundwater in the chalk aquifer, a source-zone remediation strategy was evaluated and implemented. A high-temperature strategy using in situ thermal destruction was modeled and evaluated initially, but attaining the target temperature was problematic, which led to the development of an innovative strategy of steam-enhanced extraction to mobilize rather than volatilize the LNAPL at lower temperatures. Following a bench-scale treatability study, a full-scale system was designed and constructed at the site. Steam injection together with simultaneous vapor and liquid recovery began in April 2017. The target source zone was brought up to temperature slowly through controlled injection of steam. LNAPL mobilization was observed as temperatures approached 70°C. The majority of the mass was removed as NAPL at average soil temperatures between 70-80°C. Isolated hot spots were addressed in June 2017 with in situ chemical oxidation using persulfate activation via sodium hydroxide.
Longer abstract: www.esaa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/RemTech2017Abstracts-33.pdf
Slides: http://www.esaa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/17-Dablow.pdf

2018 REPORT ON ESTIMATED DIRECT SITE REMEDIATION COSTS FOR NATIONAL PRIORITIES LIST AND STATE ORPHAN SITES
California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), Sacramento. 30 pp, 2018

One of DTSC's core functions is cleaning up contaminated properties throughout the State of California. Funding for this responsibility comes from an annual Budget Act item that transfers funds into the Site Remediation Account (SRA) and appropriates resources for this purpose. The SRA is used exclusively to fund the direct site remediation of both federal Superfund and state orphan sites. This report provides DTSC's cost estimates to the State Legislature for budget year 2018/19 and the two following budget years. https://www.dtsc.ca.gov/PublicationsForms/upload/2018_NPL_Report.pdf


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
1,4-DIOXANE REMEDIATION BY EXTREME SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION (XSVE)
Hinchee, R., P. Johnson, P. Dahlen, D. Burris, and D. Becker.
ESTCP Project ER-201326, 233 pp, 2018

Although 1,4-dioxane's vapor pressure is in the range of TCE or benzene, 1,4-dioxane is totally water soluble and hence becomes sequestered in vadose zone pore water, which serves as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. Conventional soil vapor extraction (SVE) is able remove some 1,4-dioxane, but a substantial residual source can remain. Extreme soil vapor extraction (XSVE) specifically addresses 1,4-dioxane-contaminated soil by incorporating enhancements such as decreased infiltration, increased air flow, focused vapor extraction, and injection of heated air. The former McClellan AFB near Sacramento provided an XSVE demonstration site adjacent to an SVE well with high 1,4-dioxane concentrations. The XSVE system consisted of four 2-in steel-cased injection wells forming a 20-ft square with a central 4-in steel-cased extraction well (38-68 ft bgs screened interval each). The system operated for ~13 months with about 98% uptime at injection temperatures maintained in the 100-130°C range (mid-screen). Post-demonstration, treatment zone decreases of ~94% 1,4-dioxane and 45% soil moisture were observed. Downward migration of 1,4-dioxane due to condensation was not observed. A screening-level mass and energy balance model, HypeVent XSVE, was developed to simulate the remediation of 1,4-dioxane by XSVE. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/47411/452319/file/ER-201326%20Final%20Report.pdf See also the ESTCP Cost & Performance Report at https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/47281/451099/file/ER-201326%20Cost%20&%20Performance%20Report.pdf


LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AT A HIGHLY CHARACTERIZED AND INSTRUMENTED DNAPL SOURCE AREA FOLLOWING BIOAUGMENTATION
Schaefer, C., G. Lavorgna, M. Annable, and A. Haluska.
ESTCP Project ER-201428, 167 pp, 2018

In a study of long-term behavior in chlorinated ethene DNAPL source areas following in situ bioaugmentation in heterogeneous media, monitoring was performed up to 3.7 years following active TCE bioremediation using a high-density monitoring network. Soil sampling, passive flux meters, and push-pull tracer testing was performed. Results showed that biogeochemical conditions remained favorable for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes despite the absence of lactate, lactate fermentation transformation products, or hydrogen. While ethene levels suggested relatively low dechlorination of the parent TCE and daughter products, CSIA showed that the extent of complete dechlorination was much greater than indicated by ethene generation. Results of push-pull tracer testing confirmed that DNAPL remained in a portion of the source area, consistent with soil and groundwater data. Overall study results suggest biological processes have the potential to persist to treat TCE years after cessation of active bioremediation, thereby serving as an important component of remedial design and long-term attenuation. Reliance on ethene generation alone as an indicator of complete dechlorination significantly underestimated the extent of complete dechlorination, as CSIA analysis provided a more reliable estimate, thus highlighting the importance of utilizing isotopic data to determine dechlorination rates in complex systems. Results also emphasized the importance of high-resolution characterization and monitoring in facilitating improved design and performance monitoring. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/47280/451089/file/ER-201428%20Final%20Report.pdf



Research
FIELD STUDY OF HIGH-DENSITY PASSIVE SAMPLER AND LARGE-VOLUME PURGE METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE SUBSLAB VAPOR PLUMES, FORMER AL PHILLIPS CLEANERS, 515 LAGOON DRIVE, HONOLULU, OAHU, HAWAII
Hawaii Department of Health, Pearl City, HI. 291 pp, 2017

A sampling method study was conducted at a former dry cleaner site. Previous investigations based on traditional passive and active soil vapor sampling methods that identified PCE vapors beneath the building slab provided inconsistent results in terms of the magnitude and extent of the vapor plume. This inconsistency was attributed in part to random, small-scale variability of PCE concentrations within the vapor plume and the small volume of vapor represented by single discrete vapor sample points (e.g., one liter). Small-scale heterogeneity within subsurface vapor plumes is well documented and was not investigated in detail as part of this study. The study instead focused on innovative approaches to both acknowledge and address this heterogeneity and provide more reliable data for assessment of vapor intrusion risks at sites where existing buildings overlie VOC-contaminated soil or groundwater. Two approaches were investigated: 1) high-density deployment and combination of passive samplers for identification of large-scale VOC patterns beneath a building slab, and 2) large-volume purge methods for collection of samples representative of very large, risk-based volumes of vapors under slabs to form an assessment of potential vapor intrusion risks. http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Downloads/HEER/LVPFieldStudyHDOHJuly2017.pdf


THE CONTAMINATION LEGACY OF A DECOMMISSIONED IRON SMELTER IN THE ITALIAN ALPS
Gallini, L., F. Ajmone-Marsan, and R. Scalenghe.
Journal of Geochemical Exploration 186:121-128(2018)

Four decades after cessation of 150 years of ore processing, researchers investigated an area downwind from a decommissioned iron smelter for signs of metals contamination and if any were found to evaluate the options for intervention. Samples taken from topsoils over an area of 15 km2 near the pollution source showed total concentrations of 101 mg Cr, 8 mg Co, 41 mg Ni, 70 mg Cu, 143 mg Zn, 6 mg As, 1.3 mg Cd, 0.5 mg Sb, 92 mg Pb, and 1.3 mg Bi kg/soil, with standard errors exceeding 50%. Results indicate that it is unlikely soils in the vicinity of the former smelter are a source of disproportionate human metals intake. Considering a minimum area of 1 km2 and a minimum depth of 10 cm, the total cost of soil removal with subsequent reclamation would be about one quarter of the local municipality's annual budget. Economically feasible options for reducing any risks would likely rely on optimization of risk assessment factors by adopting soil conservation practices. http://metallipesanti.altervista.org/Pubblicazioni/Gallini_Ajmone_Scalenghe_2018.pdf


IPC2017 FIELD TOUR
14th International Phytotechnologies Conference, September 25-29, Montreal, Canada. 17 pp, 2017

This brochure contains descriptions of four sites visited during the 2017 phytotechnologies conference field tour of September 29. The tour included the following projects: Stop 1. Constructed wetlands planted with willow for treatment of municipal wastewater in small municipalities with a population of less than 5,000 inhabitants; Stop 2. Short-rotation willow coppice land application system for treatment of small municipality wastewater in northern regions; Stop 3. Constructed wetland for the treatment of underground contaminated water (C10-C50 HP, HAP, BTEX, isopropylbenzene) from a petrochemical site; and Stop 4. Phytoremediation of moderately contaminated soils in a peri-urban brownfield on Montreal Island using willows, poplars, and herbaceous species. http://ipc2017.org/sites/ipc2017/files/field_tour_ipc2017.pdf


USING FIRE TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED SOILS
Torero, J.L., J.I. Gerhard, L.L. Kinsman, and L. Yerman.
Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion. Elsevier, NY, ISBN: 978-0-08-100313-8. 601-625(2017)

Combustion of an organic phase contained within a porous medium involves an exothermic reaction, during which heat is transmitted from the burning to the pore space and the solid matrix. Contaminant destruction in such applications is largely dominated by smoldering (as opposed to flaming) combustion. The results described in this paper indicate that smoldering remediation is viable across a considerable range of porous media types and subsurface conditions. See additional information on the smoldering technology in a paper at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.5b03177.


ORGANIC LIQUID MOBILITY INDUCED BY SMOLDERING REMEDIATION
Kinsman, L., J.L. Torero, and J.I. Gerhard.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 325:101-112(2017)

Smoldering is a relatively new, energy-efficient thermal treatment for organic liquid waste. Lab column experiments plus analytical and numerical modeling together suggested that for organic liquids mixed with inert sand, downward organic liquid mobilization can occur and affect smoldering behavior under certain conditions. The observed effects included increased peak temperatures (by up to 35%) and increased treatment times (by up to 30%). Downward organic liquid migration occurred when (i) injected Darcy air flux was < 3 cm/s, (ii) treatment systems were tall (90 cm as opposed to 30 cm), and (iii) the organic liquid was temperature-sensitive (viscosity < 0.01 Pa s at 150°C). An applied air flux can negate the downward organic liquid gradient required for migration. Smoldering behavior was demonstrated to adjust to liquid migration and thereby still destroy all the organic waste in the system. See additional information in L. Kinsman's thesis at https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/3421 and the manuscript submittal of this paper at https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:415622/UQ415622_OA.pdf.


METAL SYSTEMS AS TOOLS FOR SOIL REMEDIATION
Floris, B., P. Galloni, F. Sabuzi, and V. Conte.
Inorganica Chimica Acta 455(pt 2):429-445(2017)

Review of research aimed at soil remediation with metal systems (as found in literature to the end of 2015) is presented with consideration of both inorganic and organic contaminants. The following technologies are reviewed: minerals and bulk metals systems as adsorbent materials in abiotic soil; metal nanoparticles; metal porphyrins-catalyzed chemical oxidation; metal-modified Fenton systems; and metal-enhanced electrokinetic methods. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous systems are discussed and illustrated with field applications, where available, with attention to the intrinsic difficulties of in situ application.


PHYTO-MYCOREMEDIATION OF BENZO[A]PYRENE IN SOIL BY COMBINING THE ROLE OF YEAST CONSORTIUM AND SUNFLOWER PLANT
Mandal, S.K. and N. Das.
Journal of Environmental Biology 39:261-268(2018)

Biostimulation of soil with a yeast consortium enhanced the total activity of yeasts in the soil. Faster and maximum BaP degradation was obtained using the yeast consortium immobilized on rice husk combined with sunflower plant phytoremediation. http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/201803_mar18/paper_18.pdf


POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: A REVIEW
Lawal, A.T. and P. Fantke.
Cogent Environmental Science 3(1):1339841(2017)

The authors present a review of recent literature that addresses PAHs toxicity and biomonitoring in air, water, soil, sediment, and waste sludge. Sample preparation, such as PAHs extraction, and analytical methods used, are also reviewed with commentary on developments in direct measurement techniques, such as UV absorption spectrometry and synchronous luminescence. In addition, biological and physico-chemical factors that influence PAHs degradation and remediation are discussed. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311843.2017.1339841


A REVIEW ON THE EFFICIENCY OF LANDFARMING INTEGRATED WITH COMPOSTING AS A SOIL REMEDIATION TREATMENT
Lukic, B., A. Panico, D. Huguenot, M. Fabbricino, E.D. van Hullebusch, and G. Esposito.
Environmental Technology Reviews 6(1):94-116(2017)

This paper reviews the efficiency and application conditions of landfarming as a suitable bioremediation treatment for soils contaminated with PAHs and discusses the feasibility of improving bioremediation performance by combining landfarming with biostimulation and bioaugmentation as promoted by the composting of organic waste.


DECHLORINATION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN CONTAMINATED SOILS USING A NANOMETALLIC AL/CAO DISPERSION MIXTURE: OPTIMIZATION THROUGH RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
Jiang, Y., Y. Shang, S. Yu, and J. Liu.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(5):872(2018)

A nanometallic Al/CaO (n-Al/CaO) dispersion mixture was developed utilizing ball-milling technology to evaluate the reductive stabilization technique's effect on dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in contaminated soils. The optimal soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage, and grinding time were found to be 7% (m/m), 17.7% (m/m), and 24 h, respectively, in the experimental ranges and levels. Under optimal conditions, dechlorination efficiency was 80%. Intermediate product analysis indicated that dechlorination was the process by stepwise loss of chloride atoms. The main pathway observed within 24 h was HCB > pentachlorobenzene > 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) and 1,2,4,5-TeCB. Results indicated that moderate soil moisture content was crucial for HCB hydrodechlorination. http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/5/872/htm


MECHANOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF RAPID DECHLORINATION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE
Deng, S., S. Kang, N. Feng, J. Zhu, B. Yu, X. Xie, and J. Chen.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 333:116-127(2017)

In a study of mechanochemical (MC) dechlorination treatment, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was chosen as a model pollutant with aluminum and alumina (Al+Al2O3) powders as the co-milling regents. Both intermediate analysis and quantum chemical calculations were adopted to elucidate the free radical dechlorination mechanism of HCB. The researchers found that the intermediates and radical-related reactions in the mechanochemical dechlorination of HCB were quite different from what happens in a typical photocatalytic dechlorination process. Impacts of different radical reactions on HCB dechlorination were also compared.


DIOXINS DEGRADATION AND REFORMATION DURING MECHANOCHEMICAL TREATMENT
Chen, Z., Q. Mao, S. Lu, A. Buekens, S. Xu, X. Wang, and J. Yan.
Chemosphere 180:130-140(2017)

Mechanochemical dechlorination and destruction of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) on fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration was tested with and without addition of CaO and CaO/aluminium powder. Initially, obvious PCDD/F reformation occurred, and a second test series was conducted after removing soluble salts (e.g., NaCl, KCl) by thorough two-stage water washing. The second test series demonstrated good destruction results, especially with addition of CaO/aluminium powder.


FORMATION OF BROMINATED AND CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND ITS PREVENTION DURING A PILOT TEST OF MECHANOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF PCB AND PBDE CONTAMINATED SOIL
Lu, M., T. Lv, Y. Li, Z. Peng, G. Cagnetta, S. Sheng, J. Huang, G. Yu, and R. Weber.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(24):20072-20081(2017)

During a pilot study of mechanochemical (MC) destruction technology conducted for PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in contaminated soil, actual applied conditions of the pilot-scale MC destruction process indicated that the temperature increase inside the ball mills had the potential to form high levels of toxic polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) in the presence of dioxin precursors. The MC technology therefore was modified for treatment of PCB- and PBDE-contaminated soil to include a cooling system to prevent PXDD/F formation during PCB/PBDE destruction. This heat-related issue might be relevant to any contaminated soils containing dioxin precursors during soil treatment with MC and perhaps other non-combustion technologies. [Erratum - Correction to Figure 4: Environ Sci Pollut Res Apr 18.]



General News
AVAILABILITY OF DRAFT TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE: PERFLUOROALKYLS
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).
Federal Register 83(120):28849(2018)

ATSDR recently announced the release of the Toxicological Profile for Perfluoroalkyls: Draft for Public Comment. The profile characterizes the toxicology and adverse health effects information for perfluoroalkyls. Each ATSDR peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a substance's toxicological properties. Visit https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?id=1117&tid=237 for a copy of the draft profile. Comments can be submitted through Regulations.gov at https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=ATSDR-2015-0004-0008 until July 23, 2018.


ADDRESSING VAPOR INTRUSION AT REMEDIATION AND REDEVELOPMENT SITES IN WISCONSIN
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 105 pp, 2018

This guide identifies the conditions where assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway is necessary at contaminated sites; sets out the criteria for evaluating health risk; identifies appropriate responses; explains long-term stewardship; and clarifies when sites with a complete or potential vapor migration pathway may achieve closure. The guide is applicable to contaminated sites where volatilization of subsurface contaminants has migrated or has the potential to migrate to current or future occupied buildings. https://dnr.wi.gov/files/pdf/pubs/rr/rr800.pdf


ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING & ANALYTICAL METHODS (ESAM) PROGRAM
U.S. EPA, Homeland Security Research Website, 2018

EPA's Environmental Sampling and Analytical Methods (ESAM) website is a tool that supports the entire environmental characterization process for chemical, biological, radiochemical, and biotoxin contaminants from collection of samples all the way to their analyses. Collectively, ESAM's tools help local, state, and federal emergency response personnel and labs respond more efficiently to incidents, enabling smooth transitions of samples and data from field to lab to public health decision-makers. https://www.epa.gov/homeland-security-research/environmental-sampling-analytical-methods-esam-program-home


ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS OF SRP-FUNDED RESEARCH
Suk, W.A., M.L. Heacock, B.A. Trottier, S.M. Amolegbe, M.D. Avakian, H.F. Henry, D.J. Carlin, and L.G. Reed.
Environmental Health Perspectives 126(6):065002(2018)

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Basic Research and Training Program (SRP) funds a wide range of transdisciplinary research projects, supporting and promoting the application of that research to solving real-world problems. Economic and societal benefits of SRP-funded research are illuminated in five case studies focused on the use of remediation and site monitoring tools: (1) phytoremediation with hybrid poplar and cypress trees; (2) vadose-zone characterization technology; (3) activated carbon to clean up contaminated sediment; (4) steam-enhanced extraction; and (5) bioremediation of MTBE. The analysis identifies added societal benefits of the program, such as creation of small businesses, land and water reuse, sustainable technologies, exposure reduction, and university-industry partnerships. The successes and challenges involved in translating SRP grantee research findings and advances into application are also discussed. https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp3534/


THE PATHWAY TO PHYTOTECHNOLOGIES
City of Montreal Botanical Garden, Space for Life Foundation Website, 2018

Thanks to many years of research and collaboration between scientists at the Montreal Botanical Garden and the Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale (IRBV), thousands of live plants will demonstrate their abilities in the Pathway to Phytotechnologies Program in an ambitious project spread over seven stations integrated in the heart of the Botanical Garden. The objective is to use phytotechnologies to treat runoff and wastewater, reduce the heat island effect of its parking lot, stabilize the banks of ponds, control invasive plants, and demonstrate how to reduce the impact of city noise and decontaminate soils. Carried out progressively between 2017 and 2023, the seven stations of the project will be financed jointly by the City and the Space for Life Foundation. An additional amount estimated at $1.6 million will be dedicated to an education component. To cover the estimated $14.5 million cost, the City of Montreal will invest one dollar in the Pathway for every dollar raised by the Foundation. To date the Foundation has raised over $1.1 million, making it possible to develop the Filtering Marshes station, in addition to donations that will go to promoting the educational aspects of the project. http://espacepourlavie.ca/en/pathway-phytotechnologies


ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR RESILIENT CLEANUP REMEDIES
Asher, C., T. Michelsen, S. O'Dowd, and H. Froyland.
Washington State Department of Ecology, Toxics Cleanup Program, Olympia. 154 pp, 2017

Ecology conducted a vulnerability assessment for the State's cleanup sites to understand what types of sites are most vulnerable to specific types of environmental impacts: landslide and erosion; wildfire; drought; riverine flooding and extreme rain events; and shoreline changes and coastal inundation. This guide provides a framework and information for a cleanup project manager to (1) assess the risks associated with environmental extremes and with changes to a site's environment by doing a site-specific vulnerability assessment, and 2) identify adaptation measures that increase resilience across a range of cleanup sites in the phases of site investigations; remedy selection, design, and implementation; and operation and maintenance. Implementing adaptation measures during early stages of the cleanup process may increase the feasible cleanup options, maximize their integrity, and reduce costs in some situations. https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/SummaryPages/1709052.html



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