U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for May 1-31, 2017

Market/Commercialization Information
CALLAHAN MINE SUPERFUND SITE, BROOKSVILLE, MAINE
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, New England, Concord, MA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO- 5678, Solicitation W912WJ17R0005, 2017

The former Callahan Mine site was an open-pit mine developed in Goose Pond, a shallow tidal estuary of ~75 acres in the town of Brooksville, ME. The tailings impoundment and waste rock pile #3 lie adjacent to the Goose Pond Salt Marsh, creating a potential risk of significant ecological damage from metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, As) detected in groundwater and soil at levels above remediation objectives. The major work elements are remediation of the tailings impoundment; remediation of waste rock pile #3; tailings impoundment slope stabilization, consolidation, and capping; sediment excavation and disposal in a confined aquatic disposal cell; remediation of residual contamination at waste rock pile #2 and the ore processing area; site restoration and mitigation; and monitoring. The contract is a small business set-aside. Task orders will be issued on a cost-plus-fixed-fee and firm-fixed-price basis, not to exceed $45M over the 5-year ordering period. Proposals are due by 11:59 PM ET on July 24, 2017. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA33/W912WJ17R0005/listing.html


FY17 MADISON COUNTY OU-3 REMEDIAL ACTION: RESIDENTIAL SOILS
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region VII, Lenexa, KS.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5689, Solicitation SOL-R7-17-00010, 2017

U.S. EPA Region 7 seeks an experienced firm to provide remedial action services for OU-3 residential properties affected by human transport of mine waste resulting from nearly 250 years of mining at the Madison County Mines Superfund site, Madison County, Missouri. Services under this contract consist of excavation, consolidation, disposal, and revegetation of mining wastes and contaminated soils at portions of the site. Remediation will be conducted pursuant to CERCLA under an indefinite-quantity with fixed unit prices contract consisting of a one-year base period and two one-year options. Estimated dollar value for this procurement is between $10M to $20M. This procurement is a total small business set-aside. Proposals must be received by 3:30 PM ET on July 31, 2017. Monitor FedConnect for updates at https://www.fedconnect.net/FedConnect/?doc=SOL-R7-17-00010&agency=EPA [Note: It might be necessary to copy and paste the URL into your browser for direct access]. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/EPA/OAM/RegVII/SOL-R7-17-00010/listing.html


JCCC LAGOON REMEDIATION PROJECT, BECKER COUNTY, MINNESOTA
Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, CGS-WO, Bloomington, MN.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5692, Solicitation F17PS00810, 2017

This procurement will be issued as a small business set-aside under NAICS code 238910. Work consists of furnishing all labor, supervision, tools, equipment, materials, and transportation necessary for remediation of asbestos-containing material (ACM) Transite, construction debris, and contaminated soils buried in about 1900 cubic yards of soils located at the former Job Corp Conservation Center's sewage lagoon. An environmental consultant (EC) shall develop and implement a work plan to excavate, segregate, remove, and dispose of ACM-containing material, construction debris, and contaminated soils, and perform soil sampling for site remediation confirmation. The EC shall develop a detailed project completion report specifying the processes used and results of the remediation. The magnitude of this requirement is between $25,000 and $100,000. Release of the solicitation package is anticipated around or after July 7, 2017. Monitor FedConnect for updates at https://www.fedconnect.net/FedConnect/?doc=F17PS00810&agency=DOI [Note: It might be necessary to copy and paste the URL into your browser for direct access]. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DOI/FWS/CGSWO/F17PS00810/listing.html


BLM-CO WATERSHED SUPPORT ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Funding Opportunity L17AS00135, 2017

In the Sugarloaf historic mining district near Leadville, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has partnered successfully with various groups to address environmental concerns, improve habitats for recreational activities on public lands, and remediate the Tiger Mine. The Tiger Mine reclamation included removal of a mine waste rock pile and stabilization of an adit and the drainage below it. This project successfully improved water quality and substantially contributed to improved fisheries on the Lake Fork of the Arkansas River. Private landowners, state and local governments, and residents participated in the remediation and education efforts. The BLM Royal Gorge Field Office is seeking a cooperator to ensure that reclamation work in the Tiger Mine Area stands up to the harsh winters and spring run-off conditions typical of the high mountains in Colorado. In addition, BLM is expanding this partnership opportunity to include evaluation, site research, and characterization of public lands affected by historic mining within the historic mining districts in Boulder County, Colorado, and surrounding Central City in Gilpin County. The closing date for applications is August 4, 2017. Estimated total program funding is $150,000. http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=294371


EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL (EOD) APPLIED RESEARCH PROGRAM
Department of Defense, Office of Naval Research, Funding Opportunity N00014-17-S-B011, 2017

The Office of Naval Research develops and demonstrates emerging technologies for functional areas of the DoD EOD Science and Technology Program, which include the ability to detect/locate, access, diagnose/identify, neutralize or render safe, and dispose of explosive hazards in land and underwater environments. Explosive hazards include conventional and unconventional foreign and domestic ordnance, improvised explosive devices, and weapons of mass destruction. The Office of Naval Research is interested in receiving white papers and full proposals for exploratory development in the diagnosis of buried and surface munitions. The closing date for applications is August 18, 2017. http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=293811



Cleanup News
BIOREMEDIATION MANAGEMENT REDUCES MASS DISCHARGE AT A CHLORINATED DNAPL SITE
Baldwin, B.R., D. Taggart, Y. Chai, D. Wandor, A. Biernacki, K.L. Sublette, J.T. Wilson, et al.
Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 37(2):58-70(2017)

At a site where the fractured bedrock aquifer was affected by a mixture of 1,1,2,2-TeCA, 1,1,2-TCA, and 1,2-DCA at concentrations on the order of 100-1000 mg/L, chloroform was present as a co-contaminant and background sulfate concentrations were ~400 mg/L. Following propylene glycol injections, concentrations of organohalide-respiring bacteria including Dehalococcoides (dhc) and Dehalogenimonas spp. increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude across most of the source area. Statistical analysis indicated that reaching volatile fatty acid concentrations >1000 mg/L and depleting sulfate to concentrations <50 mg/L was required to achieve a dhc concentratio >104 cells/mL as is recommended for generally effective reductive dechlorination. In a limited area, chloroform concentrations >5 mg/L inhibited growth of dhc populations despite the availability of electron donor and otherwise appropriate geochemical conditions. After implementing a groundwater recirculation system targeting the inhibited area, chloroform concentrations decreased, permitting significant increases in concentrations of dhc and vinyl chloride reductase gene copies. Adaptive site management and aggressive bioremediation in the source zone of this complex site reduced total chlorinated hydrocarbon mass discharge by nearly 80%.

VOLUNTARY REMEDIATION PROGRAM PROGRESS REPORT #5, RHEEM MANUFACTURING COMPANY, MILLEDGEVILLE, GEORGIA
Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD), 224 pp, 2016

A vacant building and an asphalt-paved parking lot now occupy a site used from 1978-2009 for the manufacturing of air conditioning units and furnaces. Following discovery in 1988 of a release of reclaimed TCE from a tank farm area, a groundwater recovery system, still in operation, was installed in 1989-1990. During the current reporting period, in addition to operation of pump and treat and soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems, operation of the property-line Accelerated Remediation Technology (ART) recirculation well system continued with three new wells (ART-6, ART-7, and ART-8) installed in February 2016 to extend the geographic reach of the ART system and further reduce flux of VOCs off-property. The ART technology combines in situ air stripping, air sparging, SVE, and subsurface circulation and flushing. ART-1 and ART-2 were retired. The ART wells are located within the area of highest TCE concentrations detected in groundwater at the property's western boundary. The goal of the ART system is to reduce the mass flux of TCE exiting the property, allowing natural attenuation processes along the groundwater flow path to address the lesser VOC flux condition. TCE concentrations in groundwater passing through the ART well network are being reduced significantly. As of January 2016, SVE operations had removed an estimated total of 12,506 lb VOCs. To replace pump and treat, in situ biostimulation/bioaugmentation is planned for two areas of the property using emulsified vegetable oil and bioaugmentation culture introduced via injection wells and direct-push injections. https://epd.georgia.gov/sites/epd.georgia.gov/files/RheemPR5.pdf

APPLICATION OF ALKALINE-ACTIVATED PERSULFATE TO TREAT PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION BENEATH THE ACTIVE CONSTRUCTION OF A 32-STORY HIGH-RISE
Marley, M.C., K. O'Shaughnessy, J. Hickey, and S.E. Panter.
The 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Presentation E-002, Abstract only, 2016

Where a high-rise was being constructed in Manhattan, historical site uses had released BTEX, naphthalene, diesel-range organics (DRO), and gasoline-range organics (GRO) to the groundwater and soils. Average concentrations for BTEX and naphthalene were 3,000 mg/L and 140 mg/L, respectively. DRO and GRO soil concentrations had a combined average concentration of 1,400 mg/kg. During active construction of the building, alkaline-activated persulfate (AAP) was applied after nine months of planning that included evaluation of the chemical compatibility with the building substructure, bench testing of multiple chemical oxidation technologies, and coordination with the contractors responsible for the tower construction. The highly coordinated field event included obtaining permits to gain street access for the onsite storage and batching of chemicals, daily modification of the injection system to accommodate construction activities, and coordination with the building contractors and union workers. Using the RemMetrik® process and Wavefront™ technology to target treatment and optimize reagent distribution, AAP was implemented by injection of 72,732 lb of sodium persulfate and 31,242 lb of sodium hydroxide in 35,432 gal in 6 injection days. AAP successfully reduced combined BTEX concentrations in groundwater by 92-95% and DRO, GRO, and BTEX in soil by >99%. Groundwater reductions were sustained in quarterly monitoring events a year after AAP application.

SULFATE-ENHANCED BIOREMEDIATION OF BTEX: FULL-SCALE APPLICATION
Elkins, B., E. Alperin, and M. Branson.
The 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Presentation E-021, Abstract only, 2016

A BTEX plume from a former gas station site in North Carolina is located within the median of a four-lane highway, with the plume migrating ~150 ft under the eastbound lanes toward a neighboring water supply well (WSW). The site remains high-risk because the downgradient WSW could not be closed and suitably replaced elsewhere with sufficient yield from the shallow underlying fractured bedrock. An in situ technology was required to minimize disruption to the site. EAS®, a commercial sulfate-based amendment, was selected to enhance anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX under established sulfate-reducing conditions. A 2012 pilot study provided evidence of the viability of sulfate enhancement as a remedial approach, and full-scale application began in May 2015. One drum of EAS® was gravity-fed into each of 21 wells constructed in a grid pattern covering the plume. The performance monitoring network had one deep and 13 shallow monitoring wells, but only three shallow wells within the plume had dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons above the groundwater standards. Following the first of three proposed injection events, 3-month post-injection sampling showed 2- to 13-fold increases in sulfate in the treatment zone, average pH 6.1, a change to more reducing oxidation-reduction potentials, and variable changes in BTEX concentrations. For additional information on the pilot study, see https://solutions-ies.com/download/EAS%20Preslars%20Poster%202014-akc.pdf.

ACTIVE VAPOR INTRUSION MITIGATION AT PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURER WITH HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING (HDD) TECHNOLOGY
Iosue, G.N. and M.J. Sequino.
The 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Poster D-016, 2016

Regulators mandated groundwater and soil sampling beneath a pharmaceutical manufacturer's building to address vapor intrusion (VI), but installation of vertical borings and wells would have disrupted operations. Although subsurface conditions beneath the building slab were unknown, subslab soil and groundwater monitoring along with soil vapor extraction (SVE) for subslab depressurization (SSD) was completed using horizontal directional drilling (HDD). HDD technology was used to advance 2-inch PVC monitoring wells horizontally to a target depth of 20 ft below the slab and 120 ft inside the building wall. The horizontal wells served as compliance monitoring wells and were deployed outside the building with continuous well bores. As part of the VI management program, horizontal SVE wells were installed in the vadose zone and thin gravel layer beneath the building to mitigate vapors. Horizontal SVE and monitoring wells were advanced through a 6-in concrete footer and rock underlying the slab. To facilitate regulatory approval and acceptance, horizontal monitoring wells were drilled blind with no exit point to maintain similarities with vertical monitoring wells. Advancing the horizontal wells beneath the building actively mitigated the source area to eliminate the VI pathway. The site obtained regulatory closure and no further action. http://www.directionaltech.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/FINAL-Battelle-2016-Poster-Active-Vapor-Mitigation-wth-Horizontal-Wells.pdf

HORIZONTAL ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING FOR DNAPL REMEDIATION BENEATH A MANUFACTURING FACILITY
Iosue, G.N. and M.J. Sequino.
The 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Poster B-009, 2016

Electrical resistance heating (ERH) was selected to address a DNAPL plume of PCE and TCE originating from former drycleaning operations that extended onto an adjacent property beneath an active manufacturing facility. Because ERH implementation with conventional vertical electrodes was cost-prohibitive and disruptive to facility operations, horizontal ERH electrodes were installed to minimize disruptions while remediating impacts beneath the facility within a shorter timeframe. Vertical ERH electrodes were installed in the source area where access and disruption did not pose issues. Both the horizontal and vertical electrodes were designed to operate as a single system while covering the treatment area. Although unknown building features, bedrock irregularities, and historic fill were encountered while advancing the horizontal ERH electrode via horizontal directional drilling, real-time 3-D monitoring and analysis confirmed the design bore path for the horizontal electrode. Stresses on the electrode material, including drilling pressures and bend radius, were monitored in real time to ensure no adverse effects. ERH system monitoring data included energy use, temperature, and contaminant concentration reductions, which revealed that the horizontal ERH electrode had higher efficiencies and chlorinated solvent reductions than the vertical ERH configuration. http://www.directionaltech.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/FINAL-Battelle-2016-Poster-Horizontal-Electrical-Resistance-Heating.pdf


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
FIRST PILOT TEST ON THE INTEGRATION OF GCW (GROUNDWATER CIRCULATION WELL) WITH ENA (ENHANCED NATURAL ATTENUATION) FOR CHLORINATED SOLVENTS SOURCE REMEDIATION
Papini, M.P., M. Majone, F. Arjmand, D. Silvestri, M. Sagliaschi, S. Sucato, E. Alesi, E. Barstch, and L. Pierro.
Chemical Engineering Transactions 49:91-96(2016)

A groundwater circulation well (GCW) is designed to create in situ vertical groundwater circulation cells by drawing groundwater from an aquifer through one screened section of a multi-screened well and discharging it through another screened section. The pressure gradient between the two hydraulically separated screen sections in the well induces a circulation flow in the aquifer, forcing water through less permeable layers and moving groundwater through the treatment zone both horizontally and vertically. Researchers tested the possibility of using a GCW to enhance in situ bioremediation in an operating industrial site affected by different chlorinated solvents (concentrations up to 100 mg/L) in a complex hydrogeological saturated zone. A GCW at 30 m depth with three screen sections was designed and installed at the site for pilot testing. Groundwater pumped toward two screen sections of the GCW was reinjected into the aquifer by another screen section after passing through an external unit treatment. The external treatment unit comprised a sand filter tank and two reactors: one filled with a biodegradable polymer (polyhydroxy-butyrrate, or PHB) and the other with a mixture of zero-valent iron and PHB. Results from the first 8 months of operation demonstrated how groundwater recirculation through the PHB reactor allowed continuous delivery of electron donors that enhanced contaminant mobilization and stimulated natural attenuation processes. http://www.aidic.it/cet/16/49/016.pdf


COMBINING ZVI AND ORGANIC SUBSTRATES FOR FULL-SCALE TREATMENT OF TCE IN AEROBIC AQUIFER AT CONCORD NAVAL WEAPONS STATION
Leigh, D.
RemTEC Summit, 7-9 March 2017, Denver, Colorado. Poster, 2017

A dissolved-phase TCE plume at the Concord Naval Weapons Station extends ~700 ft downgradient from the source area and 100 ft bgs. The aquifer consists of unconsolidated silt, sands and clays. Groundwater in the treatment area is highly aerobic. An enhanced anaerobic bioremediation (EAB) pilot test demonstrated complete degradation of the TCE concentration from ~5,000 µg/L to 1 µg/L in ~500 days. To evaluate a more aggressive approach, a second pilot test was conducted to evaluate enhancement of the biological approach by in situ chemical reduction (ISCR). The ISCR pilot demonstrated much faster contaminant degradation than EAB alone. The Navy then applied ISCR to the remainder of the plume. Abiotic processes from distribution of zero-valent iron (ZVI) provide a long-lasting substrate that degrades TCE while minimizing the generation of daughter products, and amending the ZVI with a long-lasting organic substrate (Emulsified Lecithin Substrate®, ELS by PeroxyChem) incorporated biological degradation processes. Lactate was added to the amendment water to help establish the SDC-9™ bioaugmentation culture in the aerobic aquifer. At each interval, the aquifer was first primed by fracturing the aquifer with a solution of ELS and conditioned groundwater. Injection was conducted to depths of 100 ft bgs. The ISCR process rapidly degraded TCE, DCE, and VC below MCLs in the majority of the plume during the first injection event. See additional information on this project at http://themilitaryengineer.com/index.php/item/431-groundwater-remediation-at-concord-naval-weapons-station.


SURFACTANT ENHANCED RECOVERY OF SEPARATE-PHASE PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS
McGuckin, C. and R. Mohlenhoff.
RAILTEC 2016 Conference Proceedings, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 21 slides, 2016

Activities at the Amtrak Sunnyside Yard located in Queens, New York City, created an aged separate-phase petroleum hydrocarbon (SPH) plume that contains PCB contamination. The 2007 NYSDEC Record of Decision for OU-3 required cleanup to <0.1 ft SPH thickness. In addition to excavation remedies, other methods were necessary to address areas beneath and adjacent to existing tracks. A 41-well dual-phase vacuum-extraction (DPVE) system installed in October 2013 recovered nearly 2,000 gal of SPH. When DPVE recovery reached an asymptotic state with diminishing recovery rates, bench-scale results showed that Iveysol® 106, a proprietary surfactant, seemed most likely to enhance SPH recovery in OU-3 soils by improving SPH mobility and solubility. A pilot study was approved in October 2015 to determine the feasibility of using a surfactant to enhance plume recovery and treatment and to evaluate the potential effects on ongoing bioremediation. The surfactant was first diluted with a pre-determined amount of potable water and then either gravity-fed into the extraction wells or injected into the ground immediately above the water table via Geoprobe. Multiple test areas were employed, each with a different configuration of injection and extraction wells. Results indicated that direct push-pull using a single well as both the injection and extraction points removed SPH more effectively than configurations using multiple injections surrounding one extraction point or linear draw. Surfactant remediation conducted in areas undergoing bioremediation did not deplete the heterotrophic plate count. When the pilot study ended in February 2016, SPH thickness had declined significantly in all the push-pull wells. Full-scale remedial work with the surfactant is planned.
Longer abstract: http://railtec.illinois.edu/RREC/pdf/2016%20RREC/Presentation%20Summaries/12_Charlie%20McGuckin.pdf
Slides: http://railtec.illinois.edu/RREC/pdf/2016%20RREC/Presentations/12_Mohlenhoff.pdf


EVALUATION OF THIN-LAYER PLACEMENT AND AMENDMENTS AT BERRY'S CREEK SUPERFUND SITE: FINDINGS FROM TREATABILITY STUDIES AND PILOT STUDIES
Himmelheber, D., H. Cumberland, T. Krug, M. Vanderkooy, R. Bonaparte, M. McNally, P. Brussock.
9th International Conference on Remediation and Management of Contaminated Sediments, January 9-12, 2017, New Orleans. Battelle Press, OH. Abstract only, 2017

A pilot program was implemented in conjunction with a lab treatability study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of thin-layer placement of sand with and without amendments to reduce contaminant (mercury, methyl mercury, PCB) bioavailability in the biologically active zone (BAZ), and (2) reduce uncertainty related to how the system will respond over time to thin-layer placement. The lab study focused on screening amendments mixed with site sediment slurries and measuring reductions in aqueous-phase contaminant concentrations. The pilot evaluated in-field performance of thin-layer placement as a technology. Sand alone and sand amended with GAC, SediMite™, organoclay MRM, ZVI, or sulfur was installed on tidal mudflats and in the tidal Phragmites marsh. Chemical monitoring was conducted to evaluate reductions in BAZ sediment and porewater mercury, methyl mercury, and PCB concentrations. The benthic community was assessed to determine impacts on community structure. After 2+ years, physical monitoring indicates overall that the test plots are physically stable, as demonstrated by cores and survey results. Chemical data indicate that the thin-layer placements are achieving objectives with no observed effect on benthic community diversity and abundance.


DEMONSTRATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF THE SEDIMENT ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL
Rosen, G., D.B. Chadwick, M.A. Colvin, C. Stransky, A. Burton, J. Radford, H. Bailey, et al.
SPAWAR Technical Report 3052, ESTCP Project ER-201130, 278 pp, 2017

The Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (SEAP), an integrated ecological risk assessment approach developed under SERDP Project ER-1550, is based on the performance of a field-deployed device referred to as the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring). SEAP technology integrates in situ biological uptake and effects measures with passive sampling devices and physicochemical tools to assess the sediment-water interface, surficial sediment, overlying water and advective exposure pathways at contaminated sediment sites. Minor modifications also allow for direct application to surface water exposure pathway assessment. The commercially available SEA Ring developed and refined under this project consists of a circular carousel capable of housing an array of in situ bioassay chambers and passive sampling devices. The SEA Ring represents an alternative to traditional lab-based approaches to toxicity and bioaccumulation testing. Field demonstrations were conducted utilizing two different commercial prototypes of the SEA Ring for in situ bioaccumulation or toxicity testing at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility; the Marine Corps Base in Quantico, VA; and Naval Base San Diego. https://www.estcp.com/content/download/42177/402168/file/ER-201130%20Final%20Report.pdf


PASSIVE BIOBARRIER FOR TREATING CO-MINGLED PERCHLORATE AND RDX IN GROUNDWATER AT AN ACTIVE RANGE: ESTCP COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT
Hatzinger, P.B. and M.E. Fuller.
ESTCP Project ER-201028, 107 pp, 2016

Results of the field trial at Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (Virginia) suggest that an emulsified oil biobarrier is a viable alternative to reduce the migration of co-mingled perchlorate and explosives in groundwater at this and similar range sites. The optimal areas for application of this technology include OB/OD sites, munitions test ranges, EOD training areas, target areas, munitions disposal sites, and other regions where high concentrations of munitions constituents are likely to occur. Despite the site's heterogeneous subsurface lithology, low pH, and low hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer, emulsified oil and buffer were well distributed to form a subsurface biobarrier. RDX, HMX, and perchlorate were reduced by ≥92% in the centerline of monitoring wells extending 40 ft downgradient of the biobarrier after the second injection of emulsified oil. Accumulation of nitroso-degradation products from RDX was minimal. The biobarrier required no O&M other than injection and reinjection of oil substrate and had no effect ongoing range activities. A cost analysis for full-scale application was completed to compare this approach with several different applicable treatment technologies. https://www.estcp.com/content/download/45047/421238/file/ER-201028%20Cost%20&%20Performance%20Report.pdf


ANGLED INJECTION TO MITIGATE PCE INTRUSION INTO A STREAM AT A FEDERAL SUPERFUND SITE IN THE PIEDMONT REGION OF NORTH CAROLINA
Krouse, C., C. Fitzgerald, S. Noland, and N. Thacker.
The 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Presentation G-119, 13 slides, 2016

PCE concentrations in groundwater adjacent to a small, perennial, gaining stream in the piedmont region of North Carolina have been detected as high as 281 µg/L within 30 ft (laterally) of the stream and as high as 22.2 µg/L in stream water. After investigations indicated that PCE travels into the stream primarily vertically and from partially weathered rock as deep as 65 ft, an angled injection to place a ZVI-impregnated activated carbon injectant (Trap & Treat® BOS-100®) into saturated saprolite adjacent to and below the stream was proposed and pilot tested. Performed in October and November 2013, the event included 689 injection intervals across 43 injection points; intervals spaced 1.5 ft apart between 6.5 and 34 ft bgs; 7,350 total lb BOS-100; and ~7,000 gal water. Injection intervals were completed in pressurized bursts, resulting in a network of BOS-100 filled fractures. The 25-degree DPT injection angle was established as viable, with lessons learned regarding preparation, achievable injection depths, and management of injectant surfacing. PCE decreases were documented in 12 of 15 wells and 8 of 12 piezometers. The 8 piezometers located most directly downgradient of the injection showed decreases ranging from 88-100% and illustrated time trends consistent with the expected mechanics of a reactive barrier. Stream water PCE concentrations decreased in the injection vicinity but are difficult to assess due to natural background fluctuations. A second angled injection has been designed for ~20,000 lb of BOS-100 and 120 DPT injection points. http://www.trapandtreat.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/BOS-100-Barrier-PPT-Battelle-2016-FINAL.pdf


IN SITU GEOCHEMICAL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY FIELD IMPLEMENTATION REPORT, PORT OF ASTORIA
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, 208 pp, 2016

Releases from historical operations at the port resulted in petroleum impacts (gasoline-, diesel-, and some oil-range petroleum hydrocarbons) to soil and groundwater. The pilot study was performed to evaluate in situ geochemical stabilization (ISGS) as a containment approach for mitigating mobilization risks in the shallow aquifer. The pre-injection baseline sampling, ISGS injection, and monitoring well installations were performed June 2-4, 2015. Injection of 675 gal of a 4.5% Provect GS solution in the pilot test area included 60.7 gal of 40% sodium permanganate, 24 gal of 37.5% sodium silicate, 150 lb of ferrous carbonate, and 150 lb of calcium chloride. The components were systematically mixed into a low-viscosity fluid and then injected (using a top-down approach) at 75-200 lb/psi beginning on the downgradient side of the pilot study area and moving upgradient and inward from the edges toward the middle. As a result, any LNAPL or impacted water mobilized from the area would migrate through a treated zone, thereby mitigating the potential for distribution of contaminants resulting from reagent application. Following ISGS injection, free-phase LNAPL monitoring was completed in July, August, September, and October 2015; post-treatment monitoring events were conducted in August and October 2015; and a post-treatment groundwater field parameter monitoring event took place in February 2016. See this report and other Port of Astoria cleanup documents at http://www.deq.state.or.us/Webdocs/Forms/Output/FPController.ashx?SourceIdType=11&SourceId=2277.



Research
MIT RESEARCHERS DEVELOP NEW ELECTROCHEMICAL METHOD TO CLEAR POLLUTANTS FROM WATER
Chandler, D.L., MIT News Office, 10 May 2017

A novel system developed at MIT relies on an electrochemical process for selective removal of organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides, chemical waste products, pharmaceuticals) as the water flows between chemically treated or "functionalized" surfaces that serve as positive and negative electrodes. The electrode surfaces are coated with Faradaic materials, which can undergo reactions to become positively or negatively charged. These active groups can be tuned to bind strongly with a specific type of pollutant molecule at ppm concentrations. Previous studies usually focused on conductive electrodes or functionalized plates on just one electrode, but these can reach high voltages that produce contaminating compounds. By using appropriately functionalized electrodes on both the positive and negative sides in an asymmetric configuration, the researchers almost completely eliminated the side reactions. The asymmetric systems also allow for simultaneous selective removal of both positive and negative toxic ions, as the team demonstrated with the herbicides paraquat and quinchlorac. http://news.mit.edu/2017/electrochemical-clear-pollutants-water-0510 The new approach is described in a 2017 paper by X. Su et al. in Energy & Environmental Science.


CORRELATION BETWEEN DNAPL DISTRIBUTION AREA AND DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION IN SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION EFFLUENT: A TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW CELL STUDY
Wu, B., H. Li, X. Du, L. Zhong, B. Yang, P. Du, Q. Gu, and F. Li.
Chemosphere 144:2142-2149(2016)

During the process of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free-phase DNAPL may be mobilized. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a 2-D sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA DNAPL during SEAR. DNAPL distribution in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration, which revealed that the effluent DNAPL concentration had significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating that mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the aquifer boundary in all experiments, suggesting that manipulation of injection parameters in SEAR could achieve optimal remediation efficiency while minimizing the risk of DNAPL vertical migration. The study provided a convenient visible and quantitative method for optimizing SEAR project parameters and a rapid approach for predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.


EVALUATION OF AN ALTERNATIVE NATURAL SURFACTANT FOR NON AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID REMEDIATION
Beach, Brian A., Master's thesis, Western Michigan University, 50 pp, 2016

Saponins derived from the bark of the Quillaja soapbark tree were evaluated as an alternative natural surfactant for use in NAPL remediation. The following properties were measured: the critical micelle concentration (CMC), emulsion kinetics, and the solubilization enhancement of 16 PAHs. The CMC for Quillaja saponin was found to be 60 mg/L. Soil contaminated with NAPL from a former manufactured gas plant was used to evaluate saponin's ability to enhance the solubilization of PAHs commonly found in NAPL. Solubilization enhancement was observed for all of the PAHs analyzed, but the greatest enhancements were for PAHs having a larger number of aromatic rings. The solubilization enhancement data were in turn used to quantify the solubilization capacity of saponins, which showed a strong correlation with the intrinsic properties of the PAHs. A novel determination was made with respect to emulsion kinetics. The optimal resting period determined by this research to maximize the effectiveness of saponins was found to be ~14 days. http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/masters_theses/680


THE SCENARIO EVALUATOR FOR ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY (SEER) SURVEY DESIGN TOOL
Terry, N., F.D. Day-Lewis, J.L. Robinson, L.D. Slater, K. Halford, A. Binley, C.D. Johnson, J.W. Lane, and D. Werkema.
Groundwater [Published online prior to print May 2017]

Geophysical tools have much to offer users in environmental, water resource, and geotechnical fields; however, techniques such as electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) are often oversold or overinterpreted due to a lack of understanding of the limitations of the techniques, such as the appropriate depth intervals or resolution of the methods. The relationship between ERI data and resistivity is nonlinear; therefore, these limitations depend on site conditions and survey design and are best assessed through forward and inverse modeling exercises prior to field investigations. In this approach, proposed field surveys were first numerically simulated given the expected electrical properties of the site, and the resulting hypothetical data then were analyzed using inverse models. Performing ERI forward/inverse modeling, however, requires substantial expertise and can take many hours to implement. A new spreadsheet-based tool, the Scenario Evaluator for Electrical Resistivity (SEER), features a graphical interface that allows users to manipulate a resistivity model and instantly view how that model would likely be interpreted by an ERI survey. The SEER tool is intended for use by those who wish to determine the value of including ERI to achieve project goals. The tool can be downloaded at https://water.usgs.gov/ogw/bgas/seer/.


TRACER EXPERIMENT IN A BROWNFIELD USING GEOPHYSICS AND A VADOSE ZONE MONITORING SYSTEM
Fernandez de Vera, N., J. Beaujean, P. Jamin, V. Hakoun, D. Caterina, O. Dahan, M. Vanclooster, et al.
Vadose Zone Journal 16(1):(2017)

A saline tracer infiltration test across the fractured vadose zone of an industrial contaminated site in Belgium was monitored by combining surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods with a vadose zone monitoring system (VMS). The VMS provides continuous in situ hydraulic and chemical information on the percolating tracer at multiple depths in the vadose zone. The combination of high-resolution data with time-lapse geophysical images that capture the spatiotemporal variability of the subsurface improves interpretations of flow and transport, providing a better characterization of infiltration mechanisms and preferential flow paths. Results from long-term monitoring revealed vertical transport of the tracer toward depths that reached 4 m during a period of 105 d. Frequent rainfall episodes activated fracture and matrix flow mechanisms across the vadose zone. Results demonstrated how combining ERT and VMS can improve site conceptual models. See additional project information on pages 5-7 of the Advocate newsletter at http://www.theadvocateproject.eu/files/Advocate-Newsletter-n-5.pdf and in the CL:AIRE bulletin at http://www.theadvocateproject.eu/files/ab7-natalia.pdf.


NATURAL ATTENUATION IN STREAMBED SEDIMENT RECEIVING CHLORINATED SOLVENTS FROM UNDERLYING FRACTURE NETWORKS
Simsir, B., J. Yan, J. Im, D. Graves, and F.E. Loeffler.
Environmental Science & Technology 51(9):4821-4830(2017)

An integrated approach was applied to assess the natural attenuation potential of sediment that forms the transition zone between upwelling groundwater from a chlorinated solvent-contaminated fractured bedrock aquifer and the receiving surface water. In situ measurements demonstrated that reductive dechlorination in the sediment attenuated chlorinated compounds before they reached the water column. Microcosms established with creek sediment or in situ incubated Bio-Sep beads degraded C1-C3 chlorinated solvents to less chlorinated or innocuous products. Quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed the abundance and spatial distribution of known dechlorinator biomarker genes within the creek sediment and demonstrated that multiple dechlorinator populations degrading chlorinated C1-C3 alkanes and alkenes co-inhabit the sediment. Phylogenetic classification of bacterial and archaeal sequences indicated a relatively uniform distribution over spatial (300 m horizontally) scale, but Dehalococcoides and Dehalobacter were more abundant in deeper sediment. The microbiological and hydrogeological characterization showed that microbial processes at the fractured bedrock-sediment interface were crucial for preventing contaminants reaching the water column, emphasizing the relevance of this critical zone environment for contaminant attenuation.


COMPLETE GENOME SEQUENCE OF THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL-DEGRADING BACTERIUM PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA KF715 (NBRC 110667) ISOLATED FROM BIPHENYL-CONTAMINATED SOIL
Suenaga, H., A. Yamazoe, A. Hosoyama, N. Kimura, J. Hirose, T. Watanabe, H. Fujihara, et al.
Genome Announcements 5(7):e01624-16(2017)

Pseudomonas putida KF715 (NBRC 110667) utilizes biphenyl as a sole source of carbon and degrades PCBs. A complete genome sequence of the KF715 strain is reported, comprising a circular chromosome and four plasmids. Biphenyl catabolic genes were located on the largest plasmid, pKF715A. http://genomea.asm.org/content/5/7/e01624-16.full.pdf


WORLDWIDE SURFACE-SOIL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL REGULATORY GUIDANCE VALUES
Jennings, A.A. and K. Baker. Journal of Environmental Engineering 143(9):04017056(2017)

In a review of the regulatory guidance values used to control the health risks of direct contact with PCB-contaminated residential soil, a total of 2,471 PCB guidance values were identified: 57.2% from U.S.-related jurisdictions and 42.8% from 50 other United Nations member states. Identified values included total PCBs, 70 individual PCB congeners, and 9 Aroclor PCB blends. The guidance values for total PCBs and most congeners varied by more than six orders of magnitude. Aroclor values were less variable because they were specified by fewer jurisdictions. Nearly half (49.5%) of PCB guidance values fell within uncertainty bounds computed from the U.S. EPA cancer-risk guidance value model. For total PCBs, 30.0% of values fell within the uncertainty bounds of 0.11 to 0.78 mg/kg (0.85 orders of magnitude), but expanding these bounds slightly to span from the results of Spain's risk model to the value set by TSCA (0.08 to 1.0 mg/kg) in the U.S. captured 58.8% of the values; nonetheless, extreme values at both ends of the value distributions emphasized that universal agreement on appropriate guidance values to control PCB health risks has yet to be attained.


ARSENIC REMOVAL BY PHYTOFILTRATION AND SILICON TREATMENT: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION FOR LOWERING ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN FOOD CROPS
Sandhi, Arifin, Ph.D. thesis, KTH Royal Inst. of Technology. TRITA-LWR PHD-2017:02, 67 pp, 2017

The aquatic moss species Warnstorfia fluitans grows naturally in mining areas in northern Sweden, where high concentrations of arsenic occur in lakes and rivers. W. fluitans was selected as a model for field, climate chamber, and greenhouse studies on factors governing As removal and As phytofiltration of irrigation water. A review of the literature showed that successful As phytoremediation depends on the plant species used and the heavy metal and metalloid content of the contaminated medium. A study of As uptake in lettuce showed that As accumulation could be reduced by silicon (Si) addition, with arsenite shoot/root distribution being particularly strongly influenced. The aquatic moss had good phytofiltration capacity, with fast As removal of up to 82% from a medium with low As concentration (1 µM). Extraction analysis showed that inorganic As species were firmly bound inside moss tissue. Arsenic absorption was relatively higher than adsorption in the moss. Regarding effects of different abiotic factors, plants were stressed at low pH (pH 2.5) and As removal rate was lower from the medium, while As efflux occurred in an arsenate-treated medium at low (12°C) and high (30°C) temperature regimes. Low oxygenation increased As removal efficiency. Combining W. fluitans as a phytofilter with a lettuce crop on a constructed wetland significantly reduced As content in lettuce leaves. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1083884/FULLTEXT01.pdf


ASSESSMENT OF REPEATED HARVESTS ON MERCURY AND ARSENIC PHYTOEXTRACTION IN A MULTI-CONTAMINATED INDUSTRIAL SOIL
Grifoni, M., F. Pedron, G. Petruzzelli, I. Rosellini, M. Barbafieri, E. Franchi, and R. Bagatin.
AIMS Environmental Science 4(2):187-205(2017)

Repeated phytoextraction cycles are often needed to reduce soil metal concentration to acceptable levels. After the first harvest, a certain amount of metal can remain in soil and further cycles of plant growth can reduce residual metals to bioavailable forms. To verify the technology's success and the absence of extractable metals, both metal concentration in plants and the amount of metal extracted by mobilizing agents from soil must be examined. This study evaluated the efficiency of repeated phytoextraction cycles to remove Hg and As by Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) from a multi-contaminated soil. Two mobilizing agents, ammonium thiosulfate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, were used to increase metal bioavailability in soil with the further goal of investigating the possibility of using only one additive for simultaneous removal of Hg and As. Four growing cycles on the same soil sample were carried out, with and without consecutive addition of mobilizing agents. Results showed that ammonium thiosulfate notably increased the plant uptake not only of Hg but also of As, with an efficiency comparable to that obtained by phosphate used to mobilize As. Treatment with a single additive can offer advantageous new developments for phytoextraction technology by reducing both remediation timeframe and costs. This paper is Open Access at http://www.aimspress.com/article/10.3934/environsci.2017.2.187/fulltext.html.


ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER: EXPERIENCES WITH TECHNOLOGIES AND CONSTRAINTS IN PRACTICE
Hering, J.G., I.A. Katsoyiannis, G.A. Theoduloz, and M. Berg.
Journal of Environmental Engineering 143(5):(2017)

Although a standard of 10 µg/L has been widely adopted, locating information on arsenic treatment performance at full scale is a challenge. A review of available information on installed treatment provides only limited insight into the scale of implementation, factors driving process selection, and difficulties that arise in practice. Advances in information technology and consequent elimination of technical barriers to sharing information and knowledge should allow the development of an international, accessible database or even a metadata portal for installed technologies for As removal that would enable users to benefit from past and ongoing experience in practice. This paper is Open Access at http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29EE.1943-7870.0001225


BIOREMEDIATION OF MERCURY: NOT PROPERLY EXPLOITED IN CONTAMINATED SOILS!
Mahbub, K.R., M.M. Bahar, M. Labbate, K. Krishnan, S. Andrews, R. Naidu, and M Megharaj.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 101(3):963-976(2017)

This review focuses on recent uses of mercury-resistant bacteria in bioremediation of Hg-contaminated sites and the limitations and advantages of this approach. Gaps in existing research are identified. http://journal-dl.com/downloadpdf/5910883a3fbb6e13743f2e14


MERCURY RESISTANCE AND VOLATILIZATION BY PSEUDOXANTHOMONAS SP. SE1 ISOLATED FROM SOIL
Mahbub, K.R., K. Krishnan, R. Naidu, and M. Megharaj.
Environmental Technology & Innovation 6:94-104(2016)

A mercury-resistant bacteria strain SE1 isolated from contaminated soil was identified as Pseudoxanthomonas based on 16s rRNA sequencing. Hg resistance was examined in nutrient-rich media as well as low-nutrient media and expressed as EC50 and MIC values. Estimated EC50 and MIC values in nutrient-rich media and low-nutrient media had the following respective recordings: 22.6 mg/L; 23.1 mg/L and 1.4 mg/L and 1.7 mg/L. The isolate was able to volatilize inorganic Hg as demonstrated by a modified photographic film experiment and subsequently revealed its ability to remove Hg from solution. The ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of SE1-inoculated solution showed almost 60% of 1.5 mg/L Hg was volatilized in 6 h and almost 40% was accumulated in cell pellets. The mercuric reductase gene merA was identified in the genome of isolate SE1 and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of merA gene indicated a sequence homology with different organisms from the alpha proteobacteria group and eukaryotic fungi. The merA-encoded enzyme mercuric reductase activity was evident in the crude protein of the isolate. The isolate's ability to resist Hg, its Hg volatilization potential, and the presence of the merA gene and the mercuric reductase enzyme demonstrates the potential application of this strain in mercury bioremediation.


COMBINED OZONE AND ULTRASOUND FOR THE REMOVAL OF 1,4-DIOXANE FROM DRINKING WATER
Dietrich, M., G. Andaluri, R.C. Smith, and R. Suri.
Ozone: Science & Engineering 39(4):244-254(2017)

Ozone, ultrasound, and ozone/ultrasound processes were evaluated for the removal of 1,4-dioxane from tap water using a continuous flow reactor with online aqueous ozone measurement. The addition of ultrasound to ozone was found to boost removal significantly. Dioxane removal by ozone/ultrasound process exceeded the sum of the removals from ozone alone and ultrasound alone. Ultrasound alone showed <20% dioxane removal. The effects of reactor pressurization and bicarbonate as a hydroxyl radical scavenger were also studied. At constant aqueous ozone concentration, additional pressure in the reactor tended to mute the dioxane removal boost noted in the ozone/ultrasound process, whereas additional pressure did not affect dioxane removal via ozone alone. Dioxane removal was found to be dependent on the consumption of aqueous ozone, and ozone consumption was found to be increased either by the addition of ultrasound or by increasing pH.


REMEDIATING 1,4-DIOXANE-CONTAMINATED WATER WITH SLOW-RELEASE PERSULFATE AND ZEROVALENT IRON
Kambhu, A., M. Gren, W. Tang, S. Comfort, and C.E. Harris.
Chemosphere 175:170-177(2017)

Metal-activated persulfate can degrade 1,4-dioxane, but reaction kinetics typically have been characterized by a rapid decrease during the first 30 min followed by either a slower decrease or no further change. The study objective was to identify the factors responsible for this plateau and then determine if slow-release formulations of sodium persulfate and Fe0 could provide a more sustainable degradation treatment. In batch experiments where Fe0-activated persulfate was used to treat dioxane, treatment variables included the timing of dioxane addition to the Fe0-persulfate reaction (T = 0 and 30 min) and various products of the Fe0-persulfate reaction at T = 0 min (Fe2+, Fe3+, and sulfate). When dioxane was spiked into the reaction at 30 min, no degradation occurred, in stark contrast to the 60% decrease observed when added at T = 0 min. Adding Fe2+ at the onset (T = 0 min) also halted the reaction and caused a plateau, which suggests that excess ferrous iron produced from the Fe0-persulfate reaction scavenges sulfate radicals and prevents further dioxane degradation. By limiting the release of Fe0 in a slow-release wax formulation, degradation plateaus were avoided and 100% removal of dioxane ensued. 14C-labeled dioxane showed mineralization of ~40% of the dioxane carbon within 6 d. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=watercenterpubs


RESULTS FROM CONTINUOUS MONITORING AT COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES
Hartman, B. and M. Kram.
10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Presentation D-006, 21 slides, 2016

Documented TCE and PCE contamination lay beneath a commercial warehouse building, formerly an appliance manufacturing facility, which was being remodeled for lease. To ensure that current and future tenants were not exposed to unsafe levels of solvent vapors, continuous monitoring of TCE and PCE in the indoor air in the building began in April 2015. An automated gas chromatograph equipped with an ultrasensitive electron capture detector was set up in an empty office, and continuous monitoring of the indoor air at 16 locations around the building was initiated, with air at each location measured once every 160 minutes around the clock. Internet connection enabled remote access and control of the instrument. After the floor of the office area in the large building was covered with Retrocoat, a notable drop in indoor air concentrations in the office area was observed. Two adjoining areas in the large warehouse portion of the building had repeated spikes of TCE/PCE concentrations in indoor air. The frequency of the spikes, coupled with the short-term increases in concentrations, was not suggestive of a source by vapor intrusion. The monitoring program is expected to continue until the source is identified. http://www.hartmaneg.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Battelle-2016.pdf


DEHALOCOCCOIDES ABUNDANCE AND ALTERNATE ELECTRON ACCEPTOR EFFECTS ON LARGE, FLOW-THROUGH TRICHLOROETHENE DECHLORINATING COLUMNS
Mirza, B.S., D.L. Sorensen, R.R. Dupont, and J.E. McLean.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol 100 No 5, 2367-2379, 2016

Ecological conditions that developed different dechlorination stages were investigated by quantitating Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA (dhc) and reductive dehalogenase gene abundance, and by describing biogeochemical properties of lab columns in response to biostimulation. Eight columns packed with aquifer material from Hill AFB, Utah, were fed TCE continuously for 7.5 years. Duplicate columns were stimulated with whey or one of two different Newman Zone® emulsified oil formulations containing either nonionic surfactant (EOLN) or standard surfactant (EOL). Two columns were non-stimulated controls. Complete (whey amended), partial (EOLN amended), limited (EOL), and control columns were developed over the course of the study. Bioaugmentation of half of the columns with Bachman Road culture 3 years prior to dismantling did not influence the extent of TCE dehalogenation. Although dhc, tceA, and bvcA gene concentrations did not show a consistent relationship with TCE dehalogenation, the vcrA gene was more abundant in completely dehalogenating whey-treated columns. The whey columns developed strongly reducing conditions, producing Fe(II), sulfide, and methane. Carbon addition had a major influence on biogeochemical processes affecting dehalogenation extent.


PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HISTORIC LEAD SHOT CONTAMINATED SOIL, GRAND VALLEY RANCH, NORTHEAST OHIO
Tening Ndifet, Claret Mengwi, Master's thesis, Youngstown State University, OH. 114 pp, 2016

Different herbaceous species and 25- to 30-cm soil core samples from around field plants were collected from the Grand Valley Ranch, a historic gun range in NE Ohio. Soil and plant total metal content were examined using acid digestion and ICP-AES. The core samples showed variation in concentrations of lead and it was noted that the top 15 cm of soil was more polluted than the bottom 15 cm, thus indicating the surficial spread of lead due to water leaching horizontally. Root/shoot accumulation of tall fescue, common rush, and dwarf sunflower was 10,660/6,418, 12,229/4,059, and 42,446/9,693 mg/kg Pb, respectively. Common rush and tall fescue evidenced the highest removal rate with 9.5±0.9 and 15.1±0.9 mg of Pb removed per g dry weight shoot, respectively. The translocation factor for all samples was <1, suggesting that most of the Pb was not moved into the shoot biomass. Tall fescue, common rush, and dwarf sunflower all had BCF (bioconcentration factor: a ratio of plant concentrations to soil concentrations) >1, indicating a high amount of Pb was accumulated in the biomass as compared to the soil. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ysu148534444021035


ARSENIC REMEDIATION BY FORMATION OF ARSENIC SULFIDE MINERALS IN A CONTINUOUS ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR
Rodriguez-Freire, L., S.E. Moore, R. Sierra-Alvarez, R.A. Root, J. Chorover, and J.A. Field.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 113(3):522-530(2016)

The objective of this research was to study arsenic (As) biomineralization in a minimal iron environment for the bioremediation of As-contaminated groundwater using simultaneous arsenate (AsV) and sulfate reduction. With ethanol used as an electron donor, a continuous-flow anaerobic bioreactor was maintained at slightly acidic pH (6.25-6.50) and fed with AsV and sulfate for over 250 d. A second bioreactor running under the same conditions but lacking sulfate was operated as a control to study the fate of As without S. The reactor fed with sulfate removed an average 91.2% of the total soluble As at volumetric rates up to 2.9 mg As/L · h), while <5% removal was observed in the control. Soluble S removal occurred with an S to As molar ratio of 1.2, suggesting the formation of a mixture of orpiment- and realgar-like solid phases, which was confirmed by solid-phase characterization using K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These results indicate that a bioremediation process relying on the addition of a simple, low-cost electron donor has the potential to promote As removal from groundwater with naturally occurring or added sulfate by precipitation of arsenic sulfide minerals. See additional information in Chapter 6 of L. Rodriguez-Freire's dissertation at http://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/handle/10150/333167.


A NOVEL ADSORPTION PRODUCT FOR THE TREATMENT OF PER- AND POLY-FLUORINATED ALKYL SUBSTANCES (PFAS) IN WASTEWATER FROM AIRPORT FIRE-TRAINING GROUNDS
Marquez, N., R. Stewart, C. Lawrence, and J. Kirk.
10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Poster F-042, 2016

An independent global engineering consultant was engaged to test the ability of a new product formulation—RemBind™ and RemBind Plus™—to bind PFOS and PFOA in wastewater and reduce their concentrations to <0.3 µg/L. The product formulation comprises amorphous aluminum hydroxide, activated carbon, and clays. In wastewater sourced from a fire-training ground at a commercial airport in Australia, RemBind or RemBind Plus was dosed into 500 mL wastewater aliquots at different addition rates between 0% and 1% (w/v) and mixed for 2 hours at room temperature. The experiment was repeated using wastewater dosed with Jet A-1 fuel at various rates to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbons would compromise PFAS adsorption by the RemBind products. After analysis, little difference was noted in the sorption capacity of either product formulation. Results showed that RemBind had an adsorption capacity of ~2,560 µg/g for PFOS and 6.76 µg/g for PFOA, which indicates 20-25 kg of RemBind would be required to reduce PFOS and PFOA concentrations in a 20,000-L tank of wastewater (similar to that used for this study) to <0.3 µg/L. The presence of gross hydrocarbons reduced PFAS adsorption by the RemBind products, and any RemBind process used to treat wastewater should include a pre-treatment step to reduce total recoverable hydrocarbons to <15 mg/L. http://ziltek.com.au/pdf/Z097-01-RemBind-Poster-Battelle-2016.pdf


POLYMER NETWORK CAPTURES DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT: CROSS-LINKED CYCLODEXTRIN REMOVES 93% OF THE PERFLUORINATED CHEMICAL PFOA FROM WATER IN LAB TESTS
Lockwood, D.
Chemical & Engineering News, 20 June 2017

Scientists have designed a cross-linked polymer that might remove PFOA from water more effectively than current methods. The team (Xiao et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b02381) has developed an alternative adsorbent: a cross-linked cyclodextrin polymer with much higher affinity for PFOA than activated carbon. It also tends not to clog up with humic acid and can be regenerated with a methanol rinse. The researchers still have to design a practical system for continuous water treatment with the soluble polymer, possibly by attaching the material to a solid substrate like a cloth or filter. http://cen.acs.org/articles/95/web/2017/06/Polymer-network-captures-drinking-water.html?utm_source=Newsletter&utm_medium=Newsletter&utm_campaign=CEN


COUPLING SORPTION AND BIODEGRADATION FOR RAPID AND PERMANENT GROUNDWATER CLEANUP: FIELD PERFORMANCE OF DISPERSIVE COLLOIDAL ACTIVATED CARBON
Birnstingl, J., C. Sandefur, and K. Thoreson.
9. Fachtagung ChloroNet, 24 November 2016, Switzerland. 43 slides, 2016

PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon™ supports accelerated biodestruction and flux management of chlorinated solvents by dispersion of colloidal activated carbon in the subsurface. PlumeStop can be flow-emplaced to leave a micron-scale coating on soil particles within groundwater flow channels, which provides a means of capturing contaminants, focusing bioremediation, and managing back-diffusion over the long term. Plume dynamics can be passively engineered, providing long-term migration containment or control without pumping while the groundwater flow remains uninterrupted. Placement dose and design exploration can be supported by fate and transport models; the retardation factor is now an engineering variable. The presentation slides include several case studies. https://www.bafu.admin.ch/dam/bafu/de/dokumente/altlasten/fachinfo-daten/08_coupling_sorption_and_biodegradation_for_groundwater_clean-up.pdf.download.pdf/08_Coupling_Sorption_and_Biodegradation_for_Groundwater_Clean-up.pdf


POTENTIAL APPROACH TO HOW RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS COULD BE "FISHED OUT" OF NUCLEAR WASTE
University of Manchester News, 9 Mar 2017

Manchester scientists are investigating how arsenic molecules might be used to remove the most toxic elements from radioactive nuclear waste, a breakthrough that could make the decommissioning industry safer and more effective. The study follows previous research published on uranium-phosphorus, uranium-arsenic, and thorium-phosphorus chemistry. This latest study looked at how the soft element arsenic interacts with thorium, because arsenic could in principle be used in organic molecules that bond to metal atoms and improve extraction processes. http://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/potential-approach-to-how-radioactive-elements-could-be-fished-out-of-nuclear-waste/



General News
LABORATORY, FIELD, AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES FOR USING PASSIVE SAMPLING IN THE EVALUATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS: USER'S MANUAL
Burgess, R.M., S.B.K. Driscoll, G.A. Burton, U. Ghosh, P.M. Gschwend, D. Reible, S. Ahn, and T. Thompson.
EPA 600-R-16-357, ESTCP Project ER-201216, 167 pp, 2017

U.S. EPA and SERDP/ESTCP produced this document as a guide for using passive sampling to evaluate contaminated sediments. The guide is intended to cover lab, field, and analytical aspects of passive sampler applications. This resource is designed to aid in developing user-specific lab, field, and analytical procedures and to complement existing sediment assessment tools. https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100R14L.txt


SUPERFUND 2017: CLEANUP ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND THE CHALLENGES AHEAD
Probst, K.N.
American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC), 56 pp, 2017

This paper was commissioned by the American Council of Engineering Companies to provide information on the overall progress of the Superfund remedial program, looking at both the number and types of sites added to the NPL since FY 2000 as well as at key measures of program success. Program funding is also examined; one of the questions affecting the program for many years is whether Congress is appropriating adequate funds to ensure the timely cleanup of sites. This paper focuses on sites on the NPL that are not owned or operated by federal agencies (referred to as "non-federal" NPL sites) from FY 2000 through FY 2016, but does not address proposed NPL sites, federal facilities, and Superfund alternative sites. Where appropriate, actual EPA expenditures and accomplishments are compared with the estimates presented in a 2001 Report to Congress, Superfund's Future: What Will It Cost?, published by Resources for the Future. All dollar amounts are in constant 2016 dollars unless otherwise noted. http://www.astswmo.org/files/Superfund_2017_FINAL.pdf


TOOLBOX FOR COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT: A BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO CONTAMINATED PROPERTY REDEVELOPMENT
ASTSWMO Brownfields Focus Group.
Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials, Washington, DC. 43 pp, 2017

States have a variety of response programs, such as brownfields, voluntary cleanup, landfill cleanup, and underground storage tank programs, that can help communities redevelop problem properties. This update of the 2007 toolbox reflects new procedures, information, and resources in community redevelopment. It is designed to help communities locate resources to assist with revitalization efforts and redevelop brownfield properties by providing the basics needed to navigate the redevelopment process. http://www.astswmo.org/files/policies/CERCLA_and_Brownfields/2017_Toolbox/2016%20Toolbox%20for%20Community%20Redevelopment.pdf


MODELS AND LESSONS FOR DEVELOPING A CONTAMINATED SITE PROGRAM: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW
Kovalick, W.W. Jr. and R.H. Montgomery.
Environmental Technology & Innovation 7:77-86(2017)

This article contains a brief overview and highlights from two recent World Bank publications: the first deals with the development of a contaminated site program in low- and middle-income countries, and the second describes alternatives available for financing remediation and redevelopment of contaminated sites. The first report (1) provides a description of the various policy, legislative, regulatory, and implementation options for creating a cleanup program and suggests steps in developing a management plan. The second publication (2) reviews established and emerging financing mechanisms for contaminated site cleanup and outlines the strengths and challenges of each based on the experiences of several countries. This paper is Open Access at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235218641630181X/pdfft?md5=481c30e850ab3aebfae4cfdd25ca84c0&pid=1-s2.0-S235218641630181X-main.pdf
(1) Kovalick, W. and R. Montgomery. 2014. Developing a Program for Contaminated Site Management for Low and Middle Income Countries. World Bank, Washington, DC. 51 pp.
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18631
(2) World Bank. 2014. Financing Mechanisms for Addressing Remediation of Site Contamination. Washington, DC. 77 pp.
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/21098


AUSTRALIAN GUIDANCE VALUES FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) AND PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA)
Australian Government, Department of Health, 2017

On 3 April 2017, the Australian Government released Perfluorinated Chemicals in Food, a review by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) that recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) values for people potentially exposed to PFASs, including PFOS and PFOA. Based on the report, the TDIs in Australia have been lowered to 20 ng/kg of body weight per day for PFOS and 160 ng/kg of body weight per day for PFOA. The drinking water quality value has been reduced from 0.5 to 0.07 µg/L for PFOS and from 5 to 0.56 µg/L for PFOA. More information, including the FSANZ report and several fact sheets, is available on the Australian Department of Health website. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-pfas-hbgv.htm


NEW BROWNFIELD HEALTH INDICATOR TOOL


Minnesota Brownfields and the Minnesota Department of Health have developed a 20-page Brownfield Health Indicator Tool for community planners, landscape architects, developers, and community leaders. The tool incorporates a series of indicators that address community health factors and are designed to streamline the project decision-making process by providing a framework for stakeholders to identify and prioritize redevelopment goals. The tool is available in both PDF and Microsoft Excel at http://mnbrownfields.org/brownfield-health-indicator-tool/.



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