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Zamzow, K. and G. Miller.
IMWA 2017: Mine Water & Circular Economy (Wolkersdorfer, C. et al., eds.). IMWA, Vol II:1103-1110(2017)

The Leviathan is an abandoned former copper and sulfur mine located in the Sierra Nevada of the Western United States. Acid mine water at the site is addressed in four compost-free, open-pond, alcohol-based bioreactors that have operated since 2003, treating 11.4 to 15.1 million liters of drainage annually. To take advantage of a local opportunity, a manufacturing waste product rich in alcohols from biodiesel (BD) production at a nearby agricultural farm was used in a 55-day pilot study as a replacement for the ethanol usually used in the bioreactor system. Final results showed that although sulfate reduction was not as high as previous years, most metals were removed below effluent discharge requirements, particularly when appropriate hydraulic residence time was achieved. The investigators observed that cold climates may challenge consistent delivery of the BD waste from storage tank to bioreactor. http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2017/IMWA2017_Zamzow_1103.pdf

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