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Boyden, B.H., L. Nador, S. Addleman, and L. Jeston.
Water Science and Technology 76(5):1022-1034(2017)

The Austar Coal Mine in NSW, Australia, sought alternatives to lime dosing for pretreatment before reverse osmosis downstream. A process of caustic and ozone for Mn(II) oxidation was pilot tested at up to 0.74 kL/hr at the mine site. Under proper conditions and no aeration, ~81% of Fe could be removed (initially at 156 mg/L) as green rust. Supplemental aeration followed first-order kinetics and allowed 99.9% Fe(II) oxidation and removal but only with a hydraulic residence time of about 47 min. The addition of supplemental Cu catalyst improved Fe removal. Ozone applied after caustic was effective in stoichiometrically oxidizing recalcitrant Mn(II) and any remaining Fe(II). Ozonation control was achieved using the oxidation reduction potential during oxidation of the Mn(II) species. The use of caustic, followed by ozone, proved economically comparable to lime pretreatment.

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