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ELECTROCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE: INSIGHTS INTO MECHANISMS AND APPLICATION TO GROUNDWATER TREATMENT
Schaefer, C.E., C. Andaya, A. Burant, C.W. Condee, A. Urtiaga, T.J. Strathmann, C.P. Higgins.
Chemical Engineering Journal 317:424-432(2017)

Electrochemical treatment of PFOA and PFOS using a nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was investigated in bench-scale batch experiments to assess the impacts of chloride electrolyte and of hydroxyl radical scavenger TBA on PFOA and PFOS removal rates and corresponding rates of defluorination. Treatment of 0.3 mg/L PFOA and 0.6 mg/L PFOS in natural groundwater was also evaluated and compared to results obtained in electrolyte solutions with elevated PFOA (15 mg/L) and PFOS (10 mg/L) concentrations. The presence of chloride and TBA had minimal effects (decreasing rates by <20%) on PFOA/PFOS removal and defluorination for the range of applied current densities (3-50 mA/cm2) at both low and elevated PFOA/PFOS concentrations. Treatment rates of PFOA and PFOS in natural groundwater were within a factor of two of those measured in electrolyte at a current density of 15 mA/cm2 (for both low and concentration experiments). Results indicate that hydroxyl radical scavengers that might be present in natural groundwater are unlikely to have a major adverse impact on PFOA and PFOS electrochemical treatment. The study demonstrated that perchlorate produced by BDD oxidation of Cl- could be treated in bioaugmented sand columns with 3 orders of magnitude removal observed in 9 days of residence time. https://grupos.unican.es/tab/Publicaciones/2017/1.%20Schaefer%20et%20al%202017.pdf



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