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Hinchee, R., P. Johnson, P. Dahlen, D. Burris, and D. Becker.
ESTCP Project ER-201326, 233 pp, 2018

Although 1,4-dioxane's vapor pressure is in the range of TCE or benzene, 1,4-dioxane is totally water soluble and hence becomes sequestered in vadose zone pore water, which serves as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. Conventional soil vapor extraction (SVE) is able to remove some 1,4-dioxane, but a substantial residual source can remain. Extreme soil vapor extraction (XSVE) specifically addresses 1,4-dioxane-contaminated soil by incorporating enhancements such as decreased infiltration, increased air flow, focused vapor extraction, and injection of heated air. The former McClellan AFB near Sacramento provided an XSVE demonstration site adjacent to an SVE well with high 1,4-dioxane concentrations. The XSVE system consisted of four 2-in steel-cased injection wells forming a 20-ft square with a central 4-in steel-cased extraction well (38-68 ft bgs screened interval each). The system operated for ~13 months with about 98% uptime at injection temperatures maintained in the 100-130°C range (mid-screen). Post-demonstration, treatment zone decreases of ~94% 1,4-dioxane and 45% soil moisture were observed. Downward migration of 1,4-dioxane due to condensation was not observed. A screening-level mass and energy balance model, HypeVent XSVE, was developed to simulate the remediation of 1,4-dioxane by XSVE. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/47411/452319/file/ER-201326%20Final%20Report.pdf See also the ESTCP Cost & Performance Report at https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/47281/451099/file/ER-201326%20Cost%20&%20Performance%20Report.pdf

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