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Kinsman, L., J.L. Torero, and J.I. Gerhard.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 325:101-112(2017)

Smoldering is a relatively new, energy-efficient thermal treatment for organic liquid waste. Lab column experiments plus analytical and numerical modeling together suggested that for organic liquids mixed with inert sand, downward organic liquid mobilization can occur and affect smoldering behavior under certain conditions. The observed effects included increased peak temperatures (by up to 35%) and increased treatment times (by up to 30%). Downward organic liquid migration occurred when (i) injected Darcy air flux was < 3 cm/s, (ii) treatment systems were tall (90 cm as opposed to 30 cm), and (iii) the organic liquid was temperature-sensitive (viscosity < 0.01 Pa s at 150°C). An applied air flux can negate the downward organic liquid gradient required for migration. Smoldering behavior was demonstrated to adjust to liquid migration and thereby still destroy all the organic waste in the system. See additional information in L. Kinsman's thesis at https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/3421 and the manuscript submittal of this paper at https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:415622/UQ415622_OA.pdf.

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