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Wagner, A.M. and E. Yarmak Jr.
ERDC/CRREL TR-17-14, 56 pp, 2017

In the summer of 2011, a full-scale field test of a frozen soil barrier was deployed at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory site, Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska. Hybrid thermosyphons, a more efficient cooling technology than conventional ground freezing, were used to create the frozen soil. The hybrid units were actively cooled by a 4.5 kw refrigeration condensing unit for 62 d. A vertical frozen barrier of 9 m extending from a depth of 7 m bgs was completed in 42 d, and the barrier was 1 m thick in 48 d. The frozen barrier installation has demonstrated that this technology can freeze the ground quickly. At the end of winter 2012, the barrier was ~3.8 m thick, a thickness maintained throughout the summer of 2012. Only the top 0.5 m thawed even though the cooling system was inactive for about a year. An analysis to compare the cost of frozen barriers and slurry walls concluded that construction and O&M costs of frozen barriers are on par with other barrier systems. https://usace.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/api/collection/p266001coll1/id/4480/download

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