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Pinasseau, A., B. Zerger, J. Roth, M. Canova, and S. Roudier.
European Commission Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU, 851 pp, 2018

In the European Union, waste management without resorting to landfilling is an essential part of the transition to a circular economy and is based on a waste hierarchy, which sets the following priority order when shaping waste policy and managing waste at the operational level: prevention, preparing for reuse, recycling, recovery, and disposal as the least preferred option (landfilling and incineration without energy recovery fall outside the scope of this document). Secondary products are inherent to any industrial process, however, and normally cannot be avoided. The reason for treating waste often depends on the type of waste and the nature of its subsequent fate. Some waste treatments and installations are multipurpose. In this document, the basic reasons for treating waste are to reduce the hazardous nature of the waste; separate the waste into its individual components, some or all of which can then be put to further use/treatment; reduce the amount of waste that has to be sent for final disposal; and transform the waste into a useful material. http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/BREF/WT/JRC113018_WTbref.pdf

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