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Kanan, S. and F. Samara.
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry 17:1-13(2018)

This review encompasses the historical presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the worldwide environment. Information on exposure indicates that the main route of exposure of dioxins/furans to humans is through ingestion. This review presents a thorough assessment of sampling, methods for extraction, and analysis as well as the photodegradation of dioxins under various conditions. Extraction methods, including USEPA 8290, are the most frequently used methods, with high-resolution gas chromatography/ high-resolution mass spectrometry preferred as a detection tool. A detailed compilation of studies of the PCDD/F concentrations and environmental sources from major industrial regions in several countries is presented. The major sources of dioxins in the worldwide environment include combustion and industrial sources.

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