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Pat-Espadas, A.M., R.L. Portales, L.E. Amabilis-Sosa, G. Gomez, and G. Vidal.
Water 10:1685(2018)

The main review objective was to summarize the current advances, applications, and the prevalent difficulties and opportunities to apply the constructed wetland (CW) technology for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment. According to the cited literature, sub-surface CW systems are suggested for an efficient AMD treatment. The synergistic interactions between CW components determine heavy metal removal from water solution. The microorganism-plant interaction is considered the most important since it implies symbiosis mechanisms for heavy metal removal and tolerance. In addition, formation of litter and biofilm layers contributes to heavy metal removal by adsorption mechanisms. The addition of organic amendments to the substrate material and AMD bacterial consortium inoculation are some of the strategies to improve heavy metal removal. Adequate experimental design from lab to full-scale systems needs to be used to optimize equilibria between CW components selection and construction and operational costs. The principal limitations for CW treating AMD are the toxicity effect that heavy metals produce on CW plants and microorganisms. However, these aspects can be solved partially by choosing carefully constructed wetlands components suitable for the AMD characteristics. https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/10/11/1685/htm

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