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Bajagain, R., S. Lee, and S.-W. Jeong.
Chemosphere 207:565-572(2018)

A persulfate-bioaugmentation serial foam-spraying technique was investigated for removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) present in diesel-contaminated unsaturated soil. Feeding of remedial agents by foam spraying increased the infiltration/unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of reagents into the unsaturated soil. Persulfate mixed with a surfactant solution infiltrated the soil faster than peroxide, resulting in relatively even soil moisture content. Persulfate had a higher soil infiltration tendency, which would facilitate its distribution over a wide soil area, thereby enhancing subsequent biodegradation efficiency. Combined persulfate-bioaugmentation foam spraying degraded nearly 80% of soil TPH, whereas bioaugmentation foam spraying alone removed 52%. TPH fraction analysis revealed that the removal rate for the biodegradation-recalcitrant fraction (C18 to C22) in deeper soil regions was higher for persulfate-bioaugmentation serial foam application than for peroxide-bioaugmentation foam application. Even at a low concentration, persulfate-foam spraying may be more effective than peroxide for TPH removal because persulfate-foam is more permeable and persistent and does not change soil pH in the subsurface.

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