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Myers, M.A., N.W. Johnson, E.Z. Marin, P. Pornwongthong, Y. Liu, P.B. Gedalanga, S. Mahendra.
Environmental Pollution 240:916-924(2018)

Adsorption has not historically been considered an effective means of removing 1,4-dioxane due to the contaminant's low Koc and Kow values. This paper reports that the Norit 1240 granular activated carbon (GAC) is an adsorbent with high affinity for 1,4-dioxane as well as having physical dimensions conducive to attached bacterial growth. In abiotic batch reactor studies, 1,4-dioxane adsorption was reversible to a large extent. By bioaugmenting GAC with 1,4-dioxane-degrading microbes (Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and Mycobacterium austroafricanum JOB5), the adsorption reversibility was minimized while achieving greater 1,4-dioxane removal when compared with abiotic GAC (95-98% reduction of initial 1,4-dioxane as compared to an 85-89% reduction of initial 1,4-dioxane, respectively). Bacterial attachment and viability was visualized using fluorescence microscopy and confirmed by amplification of taxonomic genes by qPCR and an ATP assay. Filtered samples of industrial wastewater and contaminated groundwater were also tested in the bioaugmented GAC reactors. Both CB1190 and JOB5 augmentations demonstrated 1,4-dioxane removal greater than that of the abiotic adsorbent controls.

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