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Singh, J., T. Dutta, K.-H. Kim, M. Rawat, P. Samddar, and P. Kumar.
Journal of Nanobiotechnology 16:84(2018)

"Green" synthesis is regarded as an important tool to reduce the destructive effects associated with traditional methods of synthesis for nanoparticles commonly utilized in laboratory and industry. This review summarizes the fundamental processes and mechanisms of green synthesis approaches, especially for metal and metal oxide [e.g., gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper oxide (CuO), and zinc oxide (ZnO)] nanoparticles using natural extracts. The role of biological components is explored, including essential phytochemicals (e.g., flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, amides, and aldehydes) as reducing agents and solvent systems. The stability/toxicity of nanoparticles and associated surface engineering techniques for achieving biocompatibility are also discussed. Applications of synthesized products to environmental remediation are considered in terms of antimicrobial activity, catalytic activity, removal of pollutants dyes, and heavy metal ion sensing. https://jnanobiotechnology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12951-018-0408-4

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