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Buscheck, T., D. Mackay, C. Paradis, R. Schmidt, and N. de Sieyes.
Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation [Published online 11 Jun 2019 prior to print]

This paper presents a case study of permeable filled borings (PFBs) used to enhance sulfate biodegradation and reduce benzene concentrations in groundwater at a closed service station. Twenty-four boreholes were drilled near 4 monitoring wells and backfilled with gravel and 15,000 lbs gypsum for slow release of sulfate as it dissolved. Concurrently and for comparison, gypsum slurry was injected under high pressure in nine locations to produce a short-lived plume of sulfate. Monitoring of benzene and sulfate concentrations over a 3-year period showed that benzene concentrations in 2 wells near PFBs dropped below the cleanup goal, while 2 other PFB monitoring wells remained >1 mg/L, likely due to high sulfur demand from residual petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Hydrogen and sulfur isotopic enrichment confirmed biodegradation of benzene and stimulation of sulfate-reducing conditions. PHC and benzene concentrations are expected to decline over time, eventually meeting the cleanup goal. https://ngwa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/gwmr.12346

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