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Ateia, M., A. Maroli, N. Tharayil, and T. Karanfil.
Chemosphere 220:866-882(2019)

Peer-reviewed studies on the analytical methods, occurrence, mobility, and treatment for ultra-short-chain PFAS (C=2-3) and short-chain PFAS (C=4-7) are reviewed in this publication. Previous studies frequently detected ultra-short-chain and short-chain PFAS in various types of aqueous environments, including seas, oceans, rivers, surface/urban runoffs, drinking waters, groundwaters, rain/snow, and deep polar seas. Recent regulations and restrictions on the use of long-chain PFAS have resulted in a significant shift in the industry toward short-chain alternatives. Understanding of the environmental fate and remediation of these ultra-short-chain and short-chain PFAS is still fragmentary. This publication covers studies involving the removal of ultra-short and short-chain PFAS and identifies future research needs.

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