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Urbaniak, M., A. Wyrwicka, G. Siebielec, S. Siebielec, P. Kidd, and M. Zielinski.
Water 11(10):1962(2019)

Four different environmentally-friendly strategies were tested to remediate soil mixed with urban bottom sediments contaminated with PCDDs and PCDFs: natural attenuation, phytoremediation with Tagetes patula L. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb., rhizobacterial inoculation with Streptomyces costaricanus RP92 and Massilia niastensis P87, and rhizobacteria-assisted phytoremediation using both sets of plants and bacterial strains. The study also evaluated the effect of the urban sediment and remediation on soil phytotoxicity (using an L. sativum plant), plant biomass, total soluble protein content, total chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll a/b ratios. The added sediment positively affected the L. sativum, growing 90% better in amended soils. Application of rhizobacteria-assisted phytoremediation further increased the growth of L. sativum and improved the efficiency of PCDDs/PCDFs removal, resulting in a maximum 44% reduction of its content. This strategy alleviated the negative impact of urban sediments on T. patula and F. arundinacea biomass and had a beneficial effect on protein and chlorophyll content in the studied plants. This article is Open Access at

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