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Ren, D., S. Li, J. Wu, L. Fu, X. Zhang, and S. Zhang.
Environmental Engineering Science 36(9):1224-1235

Seven sets of tests were conducted to investigate the combined performance of surfactant-enhanced electrokinesis (EK) coupled with Fe/C-filled permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to treat phenanthrene (PHE)-contaminated soil. Tween 80, a nonionic surfactant, was selected as the solubility-enhancing agent. The tests also investigated the impact of potential gradient and surfactants on the soil remediation. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize Fe in the PRB and analyze the effect of EK on the micro-electrolysis in PRB. Results showed that PHE migrated toward the cathode under the driving force of the electro-osmotic flow and reacted with the Fe/C-PRB. After 5 days of repair, the removal efficiency of PHE in the test group with the potential gradient of 1 V/cm and the Fe/C mass ratio of 4:1 was 3.5 times as high as that in the control group in which only EK was applied. The removal efficiency of PHE in the test group and control group were 14.4% and 4.11%, respectively. The addition of Tween 80 also improved desorption and mobility of PHE in the soil. When the potential gradient was increased from 1 to 2 V/cm, the removal efficiency of PHE was increased by 42.3% (26.9% vs. 18.9%).

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