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COMBINATION OF NZVI AND DC FOR THE IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CHLORINATED ETHENES: AN ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CASE STUDY
Cernikova, M., J. Nosek, and M. Cernik.
Chemosphere 245:125576(2020)

An application of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) reinforced with a direct current (DC) electric field was tested on a former industrial site in the Czech Republic to significantly increase remediation efficiency. Long-term monitoring was conducted to demonstrate the technology's efficiency. A 12 m 9 m polygon was defined around well IS4 where contamination was predominantly composed of DCE (7,300 µg/L) and a total concentration of chlorinated ethenes (8,880 µg/L). During the first stage, 49 kg of nZVI was injected and monitored for two years. Subsequently, the electrodes were installed, and for three years, the synergistic action of nZVI within an applied DC field was monitored. Based on 32 monitoring campaigns performed over the six years, the combined method was compared with an application of the only nZVI in technical, environmental and economic terms. Technically, the method requires annual reinstallation of anodes as a result of their oxidative disintegration. Environmentally, the method provides significantly improved chlorinated ethane reduction, remediation of low permeable zones, and extended efficiency. Economically, the method is five times cheaper when compared to the nZVI used alone.



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