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Garcia, A.N., Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Ontario, 207 pp, 2019

Sulfidated nano zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) was synthesized onsite using sodium borohydride stabilized with carboxymethylcellulose and gravity fed into a non-native sandy material in a designated injection well to remediate cVOCs in groundwater. Multiple monitoring wells were installed up and downstream of the injection well to monitor particle breakthrough and changes in the aquifer system. Transport of S-nZVI to both downgradient and upgradient monitoring wells resulted in a significant shift in aqueous phase concentrations of cVOCs. cVOC dechlorination was confirmed with compound-specific isotope analysis, changes in concentrations of intermediate degradation products, and an increase of ethene concentrations. The field demonstration was followed by a bench-scale study on the aging characteristics and reactivity of S-nZVI. Results suggested that particles could remain operational after extended storage. Results indicated that sulfidation is a suitable amendment for the development of more efficient nZVI-based treatments for in situ remediation.

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