U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Search Result

Schaefer, C.E., C. Andaya, A. Maizel, and C.P. Higgins.
Journal of Environmental Engineering Vol. 145 No. 12 (2019)

A 21-day study tested an electrochemical treatment using boron-doped diamond anodes on groundwater impacted with aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) in successive 24-hour batch cycles. Results showed defluorination of both PFAAs and polyfluoroalkyl compounds. Substantial perchlorate generation was observed throughout the study. PFAS treatment effectiveness diminished over time due to scaling, resulting in decreased removal of the PFAAs and generation of PFBA. Based on measured generation of fluoride relative to the concentrations of the PFAAs, defluorination of the polyfluoroalkyl acids decreased 2-3 times more than the PFAAs due to this scaling, suggesting that defluorination of the polyfluoroalkyl acids occurred via a mechanism different from that of the PFAAs. Acid cleaning to remove the accumulated scale resulted in the restoration of PFAS treatment. Polyfluorinated compounds and PFBA showed greater adverse impacts from the mass transfer and/or residence time decreases associated with the scaling than what was observed for the other PFAAs. This implies that these compounds may prove to be a greater challenge in long-term full-scale applications.

The Technology Innovation News Survey welcomes your comments and suggestions, as well as information about errors for correction. Please contact Michael Adam of the U.S. EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation at or (703) 603-9915 with any comments, suggestions, or corrections.

Mention of non-EPA documents, presentations, or papers does not constitute a U.S. EPA endorsement of their contents, only an acknowledgment that they exist and may be relevant to the Technology Innovation News Survey audience.