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Garcia-Valero, A., S. Martinez-Martinez, A.Faz, J.Rivera, and J.A. Acosta.
Journal of Water Process Engineering 33: 101064(2020)

The effect of marls, sandstone, and calcareous crust was evaluated to assess their impact on metals precipitation and neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD). Experiments were conducted at a 5/10 alkaline material(g)/mL AMD ratio using three particle sizes (2-10, 10-20, and 20-30 mm) of each material. The AMD was pretreated using 2.5 g Ca(OH)2/L AMD to raise the pH to 4, which was necessary to prevent viscous substance formation when lower pH AMD contacted alkaline material. Marl, sandstone, and calcareous crust removed 100% of Fe, Cu, and Pb. Sandstone also removed ~60% of Zn and Cd. The optimal particle sizes were 20-30 mm for marl and10-20 mm for sandstone. The contact time required to neutralize AMD and metal(loid)s was lower for marl and sandstone than the calcareous crust. Results indicated that any of the three alkaline materials could be used in AMD treatment depending on availability in the study area.

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