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Patterson, C., J. Burkhardt, D. Schupp, E.R. Krishnan, S. Dyment, S. Merritt, L. Zintek, et al.
AWWA Water Science 1(2):1-12(2019)

Well water supplies in the municipalities of Fountain, Security, and Widefield, Colorado, contain PFHpA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFNA, PFOA and PFOS contamination The contamination source was traced to aqueous film-forming foam use at Peterson Air Force Base and contamination exceeded the 70 µg/L combined lifetime health advisory level for PFOS and PFOA at 42 public drinking water wells, and 39 private wells in the Widefield Aquifer, affecting 80,000 residents. To assist property owners and limit the exposure to PFAS in residential drinking water systems, treatability studies were conducted on PFAS removal effectiveness of commercially available point-of-use/point-of-entry units (three reverse osmosis [RO] systems and two granular activated carbon [GAC] adsorbents). The household water systems were tested with test water containing the water quality characteristics and the six PFAS contaminants found in the Widefield Aquifer region groundwater samples. Both GAC and RO systems were shown to have the potential to remove PFAS to below detections under specific water quality conditions, PFAS concentrations, and operational conditions. However, performance will vary as these conditions vary both spatially and temporally. In addition, the long-term performance of these systems was not tested. More Information: and

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