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Nickerson, A., A.C. Maizel, P.R. Kulkarni, D.T. Adamson, J.J. Kornuc, and C.P. Higgins.
Environmental Science & Technology 54(8):4952-4962(2020)

A sequential basic and acidic methanol extraction method was developed and evaluated to recover anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic PFASs from field-collected aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils. The method was validated by spike-recovery experiments with equilibrated soil-water-AFFF and analytical standards. The concentrations of those PFASs that currently lack commercially available analytical standards were estimated by a novel semiquantitation approach. Total PFAS concentrations determined by semiquantitation were compared with concentrations determined by the total oxidizable precursor assay. The method was applied to two soil cores from former fire-training areas in which cations and zwitterions were found to contribute up to 97% of the total PFAS mass, which demonstrates the need for extraction and analysis methods that are capable of quantifying cationic and zwitterionic PFASs in AFFF-impacted source zone soils.

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