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Bures, G.H., J.A. Skog, D. Swift, J. Rothermel, R. Starr, and J. Moreno.
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Monterey, CA; May 2010). Battelle Press, ISBN: 978-0-9819730-2-9, Paper & presentation D-067, 9 pp + 23 slides, 2010

An in situ pilot remediation project was carried out on behalf of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Omaha District) at the F.E. Warren Air Force Base Former Atlas E Missile Site No. 12 in Colorado. The project featured an innovative application of drilling, treatment, fracture emplacement, and geophysical technologies to mitigate impacts from chlorinated VOCs. The former missile site complex is underlain by silty sandstone bedrock sediments affected by TCE at a concentration of 4,000 µg/L or more, plus associated VOCs. The purpose of the pilot test was to evaluate the performance of fracture emplacement and amendment mapping technologies prior to developing the proposed remedy. The pilot work involved the emplacement of over 100 tons of a zero-valent microiron/complex carbon treatment amendment (EHC-G™) into deep bedrock sediments to attain optimal distribution throughout the contaminant plume. Hydraulic fracturing was conducted in 9 pre-drilled boreholes to deliver the amendment slurry at 5-ft increments between depths of 35 to 63 ft in bedrock. Between 6,000 and 32,000 lbs of microiron/carbon amendment was emplaced at each borehole by mixing it as a biodegradable, linear protein gel slurry to carry the amendment in a uniform suspension. Tiltmeter geophysics was used to verify the final distribution and geometric configuration of 62 microiron/carbon fractures placed. Field observations and tilt response showed the radius of fracture emplacement in the bedrock was upward of 80 ft, with a typical fracture overlap of 30 to 50%. The EHC-G™ microiron/carbon amendment was distributed into bedrock sediments across an area of ~64,000 ft2. Additional information at

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