U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Air Sparging


Adobe PDF LogoAnalysis of Selected Enhancements for Soil Vapor Extraction
EPA 542-R-97-007, 1997

This report provides an engineering analysis of, and status report on, selected enhancements for the following soil vapor extraction (SVE) treatment technologies: air sparging, dual-phase extraction, directional drilling, pneumatic and hydraulic fracturing, and thermal enhancement. It also offers an evaluation of each technology's applicability to various site conditions, cost and performance information, a list of vendors specializing in the technologies, a discussion of relative strengths and limitations of the technologies, recommendations to keep in mind when considering the enhancements, and extensive references.

Diagnostic Tools for the Monitoring and Organization of In-Situ Air Sparging Systems
1998. Illa L. Amerson. TR-1998-4507, ADA340166, 247 pp.

Development of diagnostic tools for quantifying mass transfer rates during in situ air sparging (IAS) operation was focused on two alternatives: (a) a push-pull test using a multi-component tracer solution, and (b) a continuous ground water pumping test coupled with injecting sulfur hexafluoride through the air injection well. Both the multitracer solution and the continuous pumping SF6 test were field tested at the U.S. Navy National Test Site at Port Hueneme, California.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Quality: In Situ Air Sparging
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. EM 200-1-19, 178 pp, 2013

This USACE Engineer Manual provides guidance for evaluating the feasibility and applicability of in situ air sparging (IAS) for remediating contaminated ground water and soil. It also describes design and operational considerations for IAS systems. The document is intended to set USACE technical policy on the use of IAS and to help prevent its application in inappropriate settings.

Adobe PDF LogoInnovative Site Remediation Technology: Design & Application, Volume 7: Vacuum Extraction and Air Sparging
1998. American Academy of Environmental Engineers, Annapolis, MD. Prepared by WASTECH, a cooperative project managed by the American Academy of Environmental Engineers with grant assistance from the U.S. EPA, DoD, and DOE.

Describes specific details of design, construction, and operation of air sparging (AS) and SVE systems, including potential enhancements to vapor extraction technology.

Adobe PDF LogoAir Sparging Design Paradigm
2002. A. Leeson (Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH), et al. 150 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Air Sparging Subsurface Performance Checklist
1999. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 6 pp.

Air Sparging: A Project Manager's Guide
2002. K. Fields (Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH); et al. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. ISBN:1-57477-130-2, 180 pp. NOTE: The Navy's Air Sparging Guidance Document is a shorter version of this publication.

Adobe PDF LogoAir Sparging Guidance Document
2001. K. Fields (Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH); et al. NFESC TR-2193-ENV, 119 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoMulti-Site In Situ Air Sparging. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
2002. U.S. DoD, Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, Project CU-9808, 42 pp.

The pilot test recommended in the Air Sparging Design Paradigm for the Standard Design Approach prescribes a suite of diagnostic tests to assess air distribution. The approach was tested at 10 DoD sites. The chief difference between the ESTCP and NAVFAC versions of this report is the cover.

Contaminants in the Subsurface: Source Zone Assessment and Remediation
National Research Council, Committee on Source Removal of Contaminants in the Subsurface. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. ISBN: 030909447X, 383 pp, 2004

After discussing the definition of 'source zone' and the characterization thereof, this report reviews the suite of technologies available for source remediation and their ability to reach a variety of cleanup goals, from meeting regulatory standards for ground water to reducing costs. The report proposes elements of a protocol for accomplishing source remediation that should enable project managers to decide whether and how to pursue source remediation at their sites.

Adobe PDF LogoGreen Remediation Best Management Practices: Soil Vapor Extraction and Other Air-Driven Systems
EPA 542-F-22-002, 2022

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental footprint of activities involved in cleaning up contaminated sites. Use of the best management practices (BMPs) recommended in EPA's series of green remediation fact sheets can help project managers and other stakeholders apply the principles on a routine basis, while maintaining the cleanup objectives, ensuring protectiveness of a remedy, and improving its environmental outcome. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is used at certain sites to address volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are sorbed to soil within the unsaturated zone. An SVE system extracts air from, or sometimes injects air into, the vadose zone to strip the VOCs from soil and transfer the vapors to an aboveground treatment system for destruction or recovery. In contrast, air sparging (AS) involves injecting air into contaminated groundwater to drive volatile and semi-volatile contaminants into the overlying vadose zone by way of volatilization. The vapors are then removed from the vadose zone, typically by a co-located SVE system. Cleanup at some sites also may require mitigation of vapor intrusion (VI) into nearby buildings until remediation of soil or groundwater is complete.

Adobe PDF LogoGuidance for Design, Installation and Operation of In Situ Air Sparging Systems
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), RR-186, 49 pp, 2015

The Wisconsin DNR developed this guidance for environmental professionals who investigate contaminated sites and design remedial systems. Given that each site is unique with respect to contaminants, access constraints, size, hydrogeology, and other characteristics, designers may deviate from the guidance depending upon site-specific circumstances.

Adobe PDF LogoHorizontal Remediation Wells
Appendix A in How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers
EPA 510-B-17-003, 47 pp, 2017

Horizontal directional drilling can be used to install horizontal remediation wells (HRWs) at cleanup sites. The technology uses specialized equipment to produce either a curved surface-to-surface well or a blind well. HRWs are able to access locations beneath surface obstructions and to place long well screens in contact with the contaminated area. The wells can be thousands of feet long, with hundreds of feet of well screen. The potential for HRWs to complement a site remedy is described with reference to air sparging, bioremediation, chemical injection, soil vapor extraction, hot air or steam injection, LNAPL removal, plume containment, injection of treated water, and sampling. A detailed overview is provided of equipment and procedures for drilling a horizontal remediation well. Additional information: The complete UST CAP review manual