U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division


Aerobic Bioremediation (Direct)

Additional Information

Adobe PDF LogoAerobic Biodegradation of Oily Wastes: A Field Guidance Book for Federal On-Scene Coordinators
Version 1.0, October 2003
EPA Region 6

The objective of this field guide is to provide guidance (primarily to federal On-Scene Coordinators) in selecting and conducting land aerobic biodegradation of oil-contaminated wastes from inland oil spills, leaking/unplugged oil wells, abandoned oil refinery sites, pipeline ruptures, and tank failures. The first part of the field guide provides information to help evaluate the nature of the environment where land treatment is considered and a summary of the existing regulations and policies (in EPA Region 6). The second part provides an overview of the factors to be considered and studied when determining if land farming is a viable option and also discusses key points in the process design. The last part focuses on operation issues and provides useful tools and information for efficient management of aerobic land treatments.

Adobe PDF LogoBiocell Technology: Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

This technology data sheet describes biocell (bioreactor) technology and provides information on the research on and demonstration of this technology at the Army's Waterways Experiment Station, where petroleum-contaminated soils were loaded into a 10 yd3 biocell. Aerobic microbial activity was stimulated within the soils through aeration.

Figure 2. Schematic of a 40-yd<sup>3</sup> biocell.
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Figure 2. Schematic of a 40-yd3 biocell.
Figure 1. The 10-yd<sup>3</sup> biocell at Port Hueneme, California
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Figure 1. The 10-yd3 biocell at Port Hueneme, California

Cornell University Waste Management Institute (Composting)

This Resource Page contains a multitude of resources on small- and large-scale composting.

Adobe PDF LogoDevelopment of Bioreactors for Application of Biocatalysts in Biotransformations and Bioremediation

This paper summarizes research on application of biofilms of fungal and bacterial cells and their enzymes, including hydrolases, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and laccase, in bioreactor systems including continuously operating membrane bioreactors.

Adobe PDF LogoElucidation of the Mechanisms and Environmental Relevance of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Biodegradation
Cox, E.
SERDP Project ER-1557, 170 pp, 2012

Major results of this project can be summarized as follows: (1) JS666 remains the only isolated organism known to mediate aerobic oxidation of cDCE to CO2, and DNA-based molecular biological tools exist to track its presence and fate during bioaugmentation projects; (2) significant advances were made in understanding the pathway, mechanisms, and enzymes associated with aerobic oxidation of cDCE in JS666; (3) anaerobic oxidation of cDCE and/or VC under iron- or manganese-reducing conditions could not be confirmed, despite substantial efforts with materials from many sites; (4) suspected anaerobic oxidation of VC may in fact be aerobic oxidation to CO2 at extremely low levels of oxygen in the subsurface; and (5) compound-specific isotope fractionation of carbon occurs in both anaerobic and aerobic microbial degradation of ethane, allowing the use of CSIA to assess ethene degradation as a possible means to explain poor ethene mass balance in enhanced in situ bioremediation and MNA projects.

Adobe PDF LogoExploitation of Composting Management for Either Reclamation of Organic Wastes or Solid-Phase Treatment of Contaminated Environmental Matrices

This paper provides an overview of the potential use of composting technology in programs aimed at organic waste recycling (product-oriented perspective) or decomposition of hazardous materials.

Feasibility of Calcium Peroxide as an Oxygen Releasing Compound in Treatment Walls

This paper investigates the use of a proprietary formulation of powdered calcium peroxide as an oxygen releasing compound in a treatment wall. Laboratory-scale column studies evaluated the release of oxygen and the permeability effects resulting from a treatment wall mixture of the calcium peroxide and representative aquifer sand. The research focused on measuring permeability effects within the treatment wall due to the initial addition and subsequent chemical reduction of the calcium peroxide and the degree to which dissolved oxygen concentration increased in water flowing out of the treatment wall.

Petroleum Bioventing
van Eyk, J. and A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam ; Brookfield, VT. ISBN: 9054106867. 302 pp, 1997

This book investigates the composition and the behavior of petroleum in soil, soil properties and soil processes, their interaction with bacterial processes, possibilities for optimizing the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by bacteria and it explains the phenomenon of recalcitrance.

Adobe PDF LogoProcedures for Conducting Bioventing Pilot Tests and Long-Term Monitoring of Bioventing Systems
Downey, D., R. Miller, & T. Dragoo, Parsons Denver, CO. NTIS: ADA423587, 80 pp 2004

This report replaces AFCEE's 1992 'Test Plan and Technical Protocol for a Field Treatability Test for Bioventing' and identifies an updated approach for conducting bioventing pilot tests and monitoring the long-term progress of bioventing systems.

Adobe PDF LogoStandardized Procedures for Use of Nucleic Acid-Based Tools: Recommendations for Groundwater Sampling and Analysis Using qPCR
Lebron, C., P. Dennis, C. Acheson, N. Barros, D. Major, E. Petrovskis, F. Loeffler, K. Ritalahti, C. Yeager, E. Edwards, J. Hatt, and D. Ogles. SERDP Project ER-1561, 12 pp, 2014

SERDP project ER-1561 focused on identifying and minimizing the causes of variability during quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) enumeration of genes of interest in groundwater, with the goal of developing of the knowledge needed to standardize methods for collecting, preserving, transporting, storing, and processing environmental samples for qPCR analysis. This document summarizes the project conclusions and recommends procedures for using qPCR analyses that will provide data of sufficient accuracy and reproducibility to allow site management decisions regarding bioremediation or MNA. Further details are available in the ER-1561 Final ReportAdobe PDF Logo (Lebron et al. 2014, 220 pages).

Adobe PDF LogoA Summary of the DOE/PERF Bioremediation Workshop May 30, 2002 Houston, Texas
DOE, 25 pp, 2002

This document is a summary of a joint bioremediation workshop held in Houston, Texas on May 30, 2002, by the United States Department of Energy and the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum. The main objective of the workshop was to discuss the "state of the art" of bioremediation for hydrocarbon-impacted soil. Key findings from bioremediation research on marine, freshwater, and wetland oil spills were presented. Presentations at the workshop addressed bioremediation as practiced by the oil industry, toxicity assessment after bioremediation, and other technical issues. This workshop summary has been written in a "Question and Answer" format in order to provide the information in a concise manner for environmental professionals who are considering the use of bioremediation at sites where hydrocarbons have impacted soils.

Adobe PDF LogoUsing Chemical Priming as a Means of Enhancing the Performance of Biocells for Treating Petroleum Products Containing Recalcitrant Chemical Species
Wang, Winnie, et al., Mississippi State University, 158 pp, 2001

Biocell technology is a soil remediation technology that utilizes commercial roll-off dumpsters as simple, yet effective bioreactors. This report evaluates the effectiveness of using chemical oxidizers to aid in the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

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