U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Multi-Phase Extraction


10.2 Dual-Phase Extraction (Bioslurping): Hazard Analysis
In Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide, Version 3.0. Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable.

Adobe PDF LogoAbove Ground Treatment Technologies: Technology Overview
Hurst, C. and D. Becker.
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC), 26 pp, 2006

This document introduces the reader to the basic concepts of optimization of above-ground technologies and provides a general overview of some common optimization opportunities for three types of treatment systems: extracted groundwater, air sparging/soil vapor extraction, and multi-phase extraction.

Adobe PDF LogoAnalysis of Selected Enhancements for Soil Vapor Extraction
EPA 542-R-97-007, 1997

This report provides an engineering analysis of, and status report on, selected enhancements for the following soil vapor extraction (SVE) treatment technologies: air sparging, dual-phase extraction, directional drilling, pneumatic and hydraulic fracturing, and thermal enhancement. It also offers an evaluation of each technology's applicability to various site conditions, cost and performance information, a list of vendors specializing in the technologies, a discussion of relative strengths and limitations of the technologies, recommendations to keep in mind when considering the enhancements, and extensive references.

Application Guide for Bioslurping
1998. Volume I: Summary of the Principles and Practices of Bioslurping. Ron Hoeppel. NFESC-TM-2300-ENV, NTIS: ADA354880, 17 pp. Volume 2: Principles and Practices of Bioslurping. Ron Hoeppel; Matthew C. Place; Christopher T. Coonfare; Stephen H. Rosansky. NFESC-TM-2301-ENV, NTIS: ADA359576, 167 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoApplication Guide for Bioslurping Principles and Practices of Bioslurping: Use of Pre-Pump Separation for Improved Bioslurper System Operation
2003. M. Place (Battelle) et al. Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), 20 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoBest Practices Manual for Bioslurping
1996. G.B. Wickramanayake, et al. NFESC-TM-2191-ENV, 55 pp.

Battelle has developed and advanced a field demonstration program on the bioslurping technology for the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE) and the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC). The purpose of this report is to present the general approach for field implementation of the bioslurping technology.

Contaminants in the Subsurface: Source Zone Assessment and Remediation
National Research Council, Committee on Source Removal of Contaminants in the Subsurface. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. ISBN: 030909447X, 383 pp, 2004

After discussing the definition of 'source zone' and the characterization thereof, this report reviews the suite of technologies available for source remediation and their ability to reach a variety of cleanup goals, from meeting regulatory standards for ground water to reducing costs. The report proposes elements of a protocol for accomplishing source remediation that should enable project managers to decide whether and how to pursue source remediation at their sites.

Adobe PDF LogoEngineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis for Bioslurper Initiative (A005)
1997. U.S. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), 100 pp.

This report describes an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) comparing vacuum-enhanced free-product recovery (bioslurping) with traditional free-product recovery techniques to remove light, nonaqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) from subsurface soils and aquifers.

Adobe PDF LogoEngineering and Design: Multi-Phase Extraction
1999. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. EM 1110-1-4010, 285 pp.

This Engineer Manual provides practical guidance for evaluating the feasibility and applicability of MPE for remediating contaminated soil and ground water and describes design and operational considerations for MPE systems.

Adobe PDF LogoEvaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) LNAPLs Team. LNAPL-2, 144 pp, 2009

This guidance provides a framework to help stakeholders select the best-suited remedial technology for an LNAPL site and outlines which technologies apply in different site situations. Coverage includes water flooding and flushing with surfactants or cosolvents.

How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers
EPA 510-B-95-007, 1996

This chapter offers descriptive and evaluative information to help determine the feasibility of using dual-phase extraction at a particular site.

Adobe PDF LogoMethods for Determining Inputs to Environmental Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mobility and Recovery Models
2001. Sale, Tom. American Petroleum Institute, API publication no 4711, 72 pp.

Performance Optimization of LNAPL Three Phases Extraction by Prefabricated Vertical Wells (PVWs)
N. Sharmin, Ph.D. dissertation, North Carolina State University, 269 pp, 2009

This project investigated the extraction of multiphase subsurface LNAPL contamination using an in situ approach termed Well Injection Depth Extraction. A field study performed at a former air force base in Ohio included an evaluation of monitoring system performance in terms of extracted liquid and gas phases. Model optimization analyses provided a framework for establishing a process for systematic lowering of the groundwater table to target the residual phase with volatilization and to optimize well spacing for maximum removal of contaminant mass.

Adobe PDF LogoPresumptive Remedy: Supplemental Bulletin, Multi-Phase Extraction Technology for VOCs in Soil and Groundwater
EPA 540-F-97-004, 1997

Produced by EPA and the USAF, this fact sheet provides an explanation of the technology and explains how to determine whether multi-phase extraction is applicable to a site contaminated with VOCs in soil and groundwater. The fact sheet also recommends MPE as a potential enhancement for SVE in the presumptive remedy for sites with VOCs in soil.

Principles and Practices of Bioslurping
2001. Place, M.C.; C.T. Coonfare; A.S.C. Chen; S. Rosansky; R.E. Hoeppel. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, ISBN: 1-57477-107-7, 190 pp.