U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

For more information on Soil Vapor Extraction Optimization, please contact:

Jim Cummings
Technology Assessment Branch

PH: 202-566-0868 | Email:

Soil Vapor Extraction


1,4-Dioxane Soil Remediation Using Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction: I. Field Demonstration
Hinchee, R.E., P.R. Dahlen, P.C. Johnson, and D.R. Burris.
Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 38(2):40-48(2018)

SVE efficiency is hindered by low Henry's Law constants at ambient temperature and redistribution to vadose pore water if SVE wells pull 1,4-dioxane vapors across previously clean soil. Based on the hypothesis that heated air injection and more focused SVE extraction (XSVE) could increase the efficiency of 1,4-dioxane removal from the vadose zone, a new process was pilot tested at the former McClellan Air Force Base, where the four peripheral heated air injection wells of the XSVE system surrounded a treatment zone containing a central vapor extraction well. Soil temperatures reached as high as ~90°C near the injection wells after 14 months of operation and flushing of the treatment zone with ~20,000 pore volumes of injected air. Results post treatment showed 1,4-dioxane reductions of ~94% and a ~45% decrease in soil moisture. Longer abstract Additional information: ESTCP Project ER-201326; HypeVent XSVE tool for feasibility assessment and designAdobe PDF Logo; Final ReportAdobe PDF Logo; ESTCP Cost and Performance ReportAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF Logo100% Design: Thermally Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction System at Former Chlorobenzene Process Area, W.G. Krummrich Facility, Sauget, Illinois
U.S. EPA Region 5, 112 pp, 2011

This document contains the design basis for implementing full-scale thermally enhanced SVE (T-SVE) treatment to address benzene, monochlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1,3-DCB, 1,4-DCB, and 1,2,4-TCB. The initially proposed remedy, in situ thermal desorption, was determined to be cost prohibitive. The area targeted for T-SVE treatment covers ~3.5 acres, between ground surface and 15 ft bgs. The total COC mass in the target treatment area is estimated at 440,000 lbs. T-SVE will be implemented using a dual-level SVE and air injection (AI) well network (i.e., shallow and deep well screens). A mixture of steam and air will be injected through the AI wells to heat the subsurface soils to a target temperature ranging between 40 and 60 degrees C, which will increase the volatility of the target COCs and thus mass removal rates. An insulating concrete cap will be installed to reduce heat losses to the atmosphere. Upon completion of the T-SVE operations, bioventing is proposed as an additional treatment measure.

Adobe PDF Logo100% Soil Vapor Extraction System Design: Big Mo & Former Benzene Pipeline Areas, W.G. Krummrich Facility, Sauget, Illinois
U.S. EPA Region 5, 172 pp, 2011

This design document is limited to the application of SVE for benzene and chlorobenzene. A total of 74 SVE wells will be configured so that they can be operated in an air injection (AI) mode. The SVE system will be operated in one of 2 target soil layers at a given time. Seasonal fluctuations of the water table will not allow continuous operation in the lower silty sand layer; therefore, it is more cost-effective to design the SVE system to focus on one target layer at a time. Upon completion of SVE operations, bioventing is recommended as an additional treatment measure. The SVE equipment can be modified for bioventing operations.

Air Sparging and Soil Vapor Extraction at Landfill 4, Fort Lewis, Washington: Cost & Performance Report
1998. Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. 44 pp.

Air Sparging, In Situ Bioremediation, and Soil Vapor Extraction at the Texas Tower Site, Fort Greely, Alaska: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 16 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoAir Sparging/ High Vacuum Extraction to Remove Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater and Soil
1998. J.M. Phelan (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM); M.D. Gilliat (Babcock and Wilcox, OH). SAND--98-2016C, NTIS: DE99000593, 12 pp.

At the DOE Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, an air sparging and high vacuum extraction system was installed as an alternative to a containment pump and treat system. Technical data are presented on the operating characteristics of the system. Available through the DOE Information Bridge.

Adobe PDF LogoEvaluation of an Effective & Sustainable SVE Tool to Extract Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapours from the Subsurface
Mrklas, O. and B. Pawlak.
REMTECH 2010: The Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, AB, Canada, 20-22 Oct 2010. Environmental Services Association of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada), 21 slides, 2010

A wind-powered pilot SVE system with a single well extraction unit was used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons trapped in the subsurface at a site located in Central Alberta, Canada. The top 1 to 2 m of bedrock (interbeded sandstone, siltstone, and shales) is highly weathered and soft but becomes hard and fractured with depth. Groundwater lies at a depth of 6-8 m bgs. The three main system components were (1) a vertical windmill, including drive shaft, (2) a 4-cylinder membrane pump, and (3) one extraction well screened at 6-12m bgs above the water table into sandstone.

Groundwater Pump and Treat and Soil Vapor Extraction at DOE's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, GSA OU, Livermore, California: Cost and Performance Report
UCRL-AR-128479, 27 pp, 1998.

Improving the Sustainability of Source Removal
Baker, R.S., T. Burdett, S.G. Nielsen, M. Faurbye, N. Ploug, J. Holm, U. Hiester, & V. Schrenk.
Sustainable Remediation 2011: State of the Practice — International Conference, June 1-3, 2011, University of Amherst, Massachusetts. 8 pp and 29 slides, 2011

Life-cycle analyses (LCAs) were conducted for four sites in Germany where SVE was later followed by in situ thermal remediation (ISTR) using steam injection (3 sites) or conductive heating (1 site), and at one site in Denmark, where SVE and ISTR were compared with excavation/off-site treatment, and SVE was again followed by ISTR. (In situ thermal desorption was eventually implemented at the Denmark site.) Site-specific conditions varied, but each of the LCAs showed that SVE consumed more energy, produced more waste, and generated more greenhouse gases than ISTR, while requiring a lengthy or even indefinite period of time to achieve site closure. Slide presentationAdobe PDF Logo, PaperAdobe PDF Logo

In Situ Bioremediation and Soil Vapor Extraction at the Former Beaches Laundry & Cleaners
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable Cost & Performance Database, 2010

In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction at McClellan Air Force Base, California, Operable Unit D, Site S: Cost and Performance Report

In-Situ Regeneration of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Using Fenton's Reagents
R.G. Arnold, W.P. Ela, A.E. Saez, and C.L. De Las Casas, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson.
EPA 600-R-07-008, 162 pp, 2007

In laboratory studies and a field pilot-scale demonstration, Fenton's reagents were cycled through spent GAC to degrade sorbed chlorinated hydrocarbons taken up during the treatment phase of soil vapor extraction. Little carbon adsorption capacity was lost in the process.

Adobe PDF LogoInstallation and Start-Up of In-Situ Air Sparge/Soil Vapour Extraction Remediation System for Strip Mall
Matsueda, T., SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd.
REMTECH 2010: The Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, AB, Canada, 20-22 Oct 2010. Environmental Services Association of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada), 43 slides, 2010

During distillery operations at the site from the 1950s to the early 1980s, backup fuel supplies (furnace oil/diesel) leaked into the soil and groundwater. In the late 1980s, the site was redeveloped into a strip mall whose southwest wing, referred to as the CRU-D building, was constructed atop the contaminated soil and groundwater. Previous consultants installed an in situ AS/SVE system to the west of and beneath the CRU-D building in 1997 and operated it until August 2008. Between September 2008 and December 2009, SLR completed delineation of soil and groundwater contamination beneath and around the CRU-D building, reviewed all site data, and designed a new in situ AS/SVE remedial system that targeted the optimal areas, depths, and soil units, with dedicated piping for each sparge and extraction line and higher capacity blowers and compressors to achieve optimal pressures and flow rates. Installation and startup of the new remedial system took place between January and May 2010. This presentation describes the challenges and logistics of drilling at an occupied/operating mall; the management and reduction of remediation system sound levels from equipment to comply with local bylaws; and the challenges and successes of system optimization and effectiveness.

Adobe PDF LogoInterim Measures Final Report for Soil-Vapor Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Material Disposal Area L, Technical Area 54
U.S. DOE, Office of Environmental Management, EM2018-0008, 124 pp, 2018

In 2015, a soil-vapor extraction (SVE) system operated at two vapor extraction wells in Material Disposal Area (MDA) L, Technical Area 54 of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Within 10 months, the two SVE units removed 1,217 lbs of total organic vapor mass, primarily from within a ~150-ft radius surrounding the extraction wells. Following the initial 10-mo SVE operation, short-duration rebound testing was performed in 2016 (2 days) and 2017 (25 days). Pore-gas sampling results collected within the 150-ft radius of the SVE units confirmed SVE operation had reduced the concentrations at most sampling ports to below their baseline values. Data collected during the interim measure was used to calibrate and validate a 3D model of the site, explore scenarios of hypothetical future releases, and present suggestions to support the selection and design of a final remedy for MDA L.

Adobe PDF LogoJV Task 104: Risk Reduction Using Innovative Vacuum-Enhanced Plume Controls
J. Solc and B.W. Botnen.
2009-EERC-03-03, 55 pp, 2009

Remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater was conducted at the Vining Oil site in Carrington, ND, via simultaneous operation of MPE and high-vacuum SVE contaminant recovery coupled with vacuum-controlled air and ozone sparging on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Integration of the air-sparging subsystem operated simultaneously with MPE and SVE systems resulted in accelerated transport of volatile organics from the saturated zone and increased recovery of contaminants of concern. Delivery of over 7.7 million cubic ft of oxygen into the contaminated aquifer resulted in in situ biodegradation of benzene and provided for long-term stimulation of contaminant attenuation. Monitoring results from September 2006 to June 2008 are reported.

JV Task 109: Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota
J. Solc.
2007-EERC-12-07, 300 pp, 2007

The performance of SVE and multiphase extraction (MPE) for remediation of soil and ground water impacted by a hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam was evaluated in Garrison, North Dakota, following the September 2005 release of an estimated 30,000 gallons of premium gasoline from an oil company facility. Free product was detected in cavities of the abandoned mine, as well as high concentrations of residual gasoline-based contaminants. SVE and MPE pilot tests confirmed high contaminant recovery efficiency at all three of the identified hot spots. The suggested remedial strategy is based on contaminant recovery and in situ degradation using a combination of thermally enhanced SVE in the source area, mobile MPE units transitioned to SVE in saturated impacted areas, and high-volume low-vacuum extraction from mining cavities based on a pioneering concept of controlled 'draft and channel' extraction technology. See 2009 update: JV-Task 130Adobe PDF Logo.

Adobe PDF LogoLevel 2 Remediation Action Plan, AA Discount, 181 West Kings Highway, Center Hill, Florida
Florida Department of Health, 140 pp, 2018

The 181 West Kings Site is an active petroleum gas and convenience store. A past discharge led to the removal of four 6,000 gal USTs, associated piping, and ~155 tons of surrounding soils in a 1500 ft2 excavation area to a depth of 13 feet. Groundwater sampling results for wells MW-5R and MW-8R in 2014 and MW-5I and MW-8I in 2017 tested positive for BTEX and MTBE. In February 2018, two 8-hour soil vapor extraction and air sparging tests were conducted at the site using mobile, trailer-mounted systems. Results indicated successful remediation and were used to design a system for full-scale remediation.

Performance Evaluation Report for Soil Vapor Extraction Operations at the Carbon Tetrachloride Site, February 1992 - September 1998
1999. V.J. Rohay. BHI-00720 REV. 3, NTIS: DE00008586, 222 pp.

Available through the DOE Information Bridge.

Pump and Treat and Containment of Contaminated Groundwater at the Sylvester/Gilson Road Superfund Site, Nashua, New Hampshire: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 18 pp.

Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Mystery Bridge at Hwy 20 Superfund Site Dow/DSI Facility Evansville, Wyoming: Cost and Performance Report

Adobe PDF LogoPush-Pull Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, NTIS: ADA468544, 46 pp, 2006

Single-well push/pull test methods were demonstrated at Fort Lewis Logistics Center (using toluene as a cometabolic growth substrate) and McClellan AFB (during cometabolic air sparging with propane as a growth substrate) to determine (1) the transport characteristics of nutrients, substrates, and CAHs and their transformation products; (2) the capability of indigenous microorganisms to utilize selected substrates and transform targeted contaminants and surrogate compounds; (3) the rates of substrate utilization and contaminant transformation; and (4) the combinations of injected nutrients and substrates that maximize rates of contaminant transformation.

Adobe PDF LogoRemedial Action Report for Operable Unit 2
NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. 126 pp, 2007

The successful removal of VOCs (carbon tetrachloride, Freon 113, trichloroethene, and 1,1-dichloroethene) from the vadose zone during an SVE pilot test in 1998 led NASA to proceed with this alternative using a trailer-mounted unit that was moved among 4 locations from April 1998 until September 2005. The system achieved all of its specified performance objectives.

Adobe PDF LogoRemedial Action Status Report: McNatt's Cleaners, 5297 Ehrlich Road, Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 278 pp, 2018

The facility is an active drycleaner that currently uses petroleum-based drycleaning solvent. The remediation system is designed to recover PCE and daughter products identified in the vadose zone. Although multi-phase extraction was initially recommended as a remedial technology, a phased remedial approach was selected that began in 2004 with the design and implementation of a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system to remediate shallow soils and was followed in 2009 with injections of biostimulation materials (SRS®). Installation of an additional SVE well and completion of additional biostimulation and bioaugmentation injections took place in 2017. Contaminant mass removal through the most recent reporting period is estimated at ~444.9 lbs and appears to have leveled off. Additional information: McNatt Project Website

Adobe PDF LogoRemediation System Evaluation: 10th Street Superfund Site, OU2, Columbus, Nebraska
U.S. EPA, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI).
EPA 540-R-10-012, 77 pp, Feb 2010

Groundwater contamination at the 10th Street Superfund Site consists primarily of PCE, TCE, and cis-1,2-DCE. Three active components provide the groundwater remedy: 1) a groundwater extraction and treatment (GET) system; 2) an AS/SVE system located at the One Hour Martinizing (OHM) source area; and 3) ISCO treatment at the OHM source area and also at locations between OHM and the GET system. Optimization recommendations are provided in four primary categories: effectiveness, cost reduction, technical improvement, and sustainability.

Site Profiles of Remedial Technologies: Soil Vapor Extraction

These profiles describe recent field demonstrations and commercial applications of soil vapor extraction.

Soil Vapor Extraction System at Commencement Bay, South Tacoma Channel (Well 12A), Phase 2, Tacoma, Washington: Cost and Performance Report

Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioventing for Remediation of a JP-4 Fuel Spill at Site 914, Hill Air Force Base, Ogden, UT. Case Study Abstract
1995. U.S. Air Force, 14 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction and Groundwater Containment at OU1, Shaw AFB, South Carolina: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 21 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction and In Situ Chemical Oxidation at Swift Cleaners, Jacksonville, Florida
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) Cost & Performance Database, 2007

Soil Vapor Extraction at the Basket Creek Surface Impoundment Site, Douglasville, Georgia: Cost and Performance Report
1997. 26 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at Camp LeJeune Military Reservation, Site 82, Area A, Onslow County, North Carolina: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 5 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at Defense Supply Center Richmond, OU 5, Chesterfield County, Virginia: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 5 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at Fort Richardson, Building 908 South, Anchorage, Alaska: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 18 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at the Intersil/ Siemens Superfund Site, Cupertino, California: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 9 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at the North Fire Training Area (NFTA), Luke AFB, Arizona: Cost and Performance Report

Soil Vapor Extraction at the Sacramento Army Depot Superfund Site, Burn Pits Operable Unit, Sacramento, California: Cost and Performance Report
1997. 31 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at the Sand Creek Industrial Superfund Site, Operable Unit No. 1, Commerce City, Colorado: Cost and Performance Report
1997. 33 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at Site ST-35, Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 7 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at Sites 2 and 5—Petroleum, Oils and Lubricants Area, Holloman AFB, New Mexico: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 22 pp.

Soil Vapor Extraction at the Tyson's Dump Superfund Site, Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania: Cost and Performance Report
1998. 18 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoSource Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel-Contaminated Sites. Technical Summary Report
2000. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, 125 pp.

This report summarizes field performance studies of the following source reduction technologies: air sparging, bioventing, biosparging, soil vapor extraction, multi-phase extraction, and excavation.