U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

For more information on Thermal Treatment - In Situ, please contact:

Jim Cummings
Technology Assessment Branch

PH: 202-566-0868 | Email:

Thermal Treatment: In Situ


Cost and Performance Reports
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable.

Adobe PDF Logo Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Removal from Fractured Rock Using Thermal Conductive Heating (TCH)
Lebron, C.A., D. Phelan, G. Heron, J. LaChance, S.G. Nielsen, B. Kueper, D. Rodriguez, A. Wemp, D. Baston, P. Lacombe, and F.H. Chapelle.
Contract Report CR-NAVFAC ESC-EV-1202, ESTCP Project ER-200715, 427 pp, Aug 2012

This project conducted (1) treatability studies to ascertain a treatment strategy (duration and temperature) for several rock types, (2) modeling to perform screening calculations and carry out mass estimates, and (3) field application of TCH at Naval Air Warfare Center Trenton, a fractured bedrock site. Treatability study results indicate that heating duration had a greater effect on the degree of PCE and TCE mass removal than heating temperature. In 97 days of continuous heating in the field, the average reduction in TCE concentrations was 41-69%; however, the rock matrix did not achieve the targeted temperature in all locations, due mostly to contaminated groundwater influx thru existing fractures. Additional information: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report Adobe PDF Logo

1,4-Dioxane Soil Remediation Using Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction: I. Field Demonstration
Hinchee, R.E., P.R. Dahlen, P.C. Johnson, and D.R. Burris.
Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 38(2):40-48(2018)

SVE efficiency is hindered by low Henry's Law constants at ambient temperature and redistribution to vadose pore water if SVE wells pull 1,4-dioxane vapors across previously clean soil. Based on the hypothesis that heated air injection and more focused SVE extraction (XSVE) could increase the efficiency of 1,4-dioxane removal from the vadose zone, a new process was pilot tested at the former McClellan Air Force Base, where the four peripheral heated air injection wells of the XSVE system surrounded a treatment zone containing a central vapor extraction well. Soil temperatures reached as high as ~90°C near the injection wells after 14 months of operation and flushing of the treatment zone with ~20,000 pore volumes of injected air. Results post treatment showed 1,4-dioxane reductions of ~94% and a ~45% decrease in soil moisture. Longer abstract Additional information: ESTCP Project ER-201326; HypeVent XSVE tool for feasibility assessment and designAdobe PDF Logo; Final ReportAdobe PDF Logo; ESTCP Cost and Performance ReportAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF Logo100% Design: Thermally Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction System at Former Chlorobenzene Process Area, W.G. Krummrich Facility, Sauget, Illinois
U.S. EPA Region 5, 112 pp, 2011

This document contains the design basis for implementing full-scale thermally enhanced SVE (T-SVE) treatment to address benzene, monochlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1,3-DCB, 1,4-DCB, and 1,2,4-TCB. The initially proposed remedy, in situ thermal desorption, was determined to be cost prohibitive. The area targeted for T-SVE treatment covers ~3.5 acres, between ground surface and 15 ft bgs. The total COC mass in the target treatment area is estimated at 440,000 lbs. T-SVE will be implemented using a dual-level SVE and air injection (AI) well network (i.e., shallow and deep well screens). A mixture of steam and air will be injected through the AI wells to heat the subsurface soils to a target temperature ranging between 40 and 60 degrees C, which will increase the volatility of the target COCs and thus mass removal rates. An insulating concrete cap will be installed to reduce heat losses to the atmosphere. Upon completion of the T-SVE operations, bioventing is proposed as an additional treatment measure.

Assessment of Groundwater Quality Improvements and Mass Discharge Reductions at Five In Situ Electrical Resistance Heating Remediation Sites
Kingston, J.L.T., P.R. Dahlen, and P.C. Johnson.
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 32(3):41-51(2012)

Post-treatment data collected at five ERH sites were assessed for reductions in dissolved groundwater concentrations and mass discharge (mass flux) to the aquifer. Results indicate that ERH systems are capable of reducing groundwater concentration levels to 10-100 ug/L and lower in some settings, but only if the source zone is adequately delineated and fully encompassed by the treatment system, and the system is operated for a sufficiently long period of time. Longer abstract

CROW TM Field Demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole
L.A. Johnson; L.J. Fahy, Univ. of Wyoming Research Corp., Laramie.
WRI-02-R005, NTIS: DE2002-793528. 25 pp, 2002.

The Contained Recovery of Oily Waste (CROWTM) process involves hot water injection to displace and recover nonaqueous phase liquids.

Adobe PDF LogoCROWTM Process Application for Sites Contaminated with Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
L. A. Johnson Jr.
WRI-03-R009, 34 pp, 2003.

Adobe PDF LogoChallenges Encountered on Heavily Contaminated Thermal NAPL Sites
Griepke, S. | Design and Construction Issues at Hazardous Waste Sites Virtual Meeting, 26-28 October, 22 slides, 2020

Citing case studies, this presentation focuses on overcoming some common operational issues during full-scale thermal NAPL projects. The presentation includes governing removal mechanisms, common field issues encountered in the subsurface, process system components at high NAPL mass sites, design considerations and lessons learned for high-mass NAPL source zones, and data and lessons learned from laboratory treatability studies and full-scale remedies. Longer abstract Adobe PDF Logo;

Adobe PDF LogoChallenges of Thermal Remediation at Two Waste Oil Superfund Sites
Davis, E. | Design and Construction Issues at Hazardous Waste Sites Virtual Meeting, 26-28 October, 22 slides, 2020

Thermal remediation was the chosen LNAPL remedy at both the Solvent Recovery Services of New England (SRSNE) and Beede Waste Oil Superfund sites. While similarities existed in the wastes to be recovered at the two sites, site characteristic differences led to different thermal approaches. The presentation describes each site's salient features, the chosen remedial technologies (thermal conductive heating at SRSNE and steam enhanced extraction at Beede), the challenges encountered, and how these challenges were successfully overcome. Additional information: Longer abstract Adobe PDF Logo; fact sheet for the Beede Waste Oil Superfund site project Adobe PDF Logo; fact sheet for the SRSNE site project Adobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoCombining Low-Energy Electrical Resistance Heating With Biotic and Abiotic Reactions for Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Areas
Macbeth, T., M.J. Truex, T. Powell, and M. Michalsen.
ESTCP Project ER-200719, 383 pp, 2012

Low-temperature subsurface heating was combined with either ZVI or in situ bioremediation to enhance DNAPL remediation performance through both increased degradation reaction rates and contaminant dissolution. Moderate heating and minor operational costs enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of in situ treatment of TCE. Capture and treatment of contaminated vapor—a major cost element of standard thermal treatment—was not needed as the heating infrastructure was limited to subsurface electrodes and a power control unit. See also the 2015 ESTCP Cost & Performance ReportAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoCombining Thermal Treatment with MNA at a Brownfield DNAPL Site
Heron, G., J. LaChance, J. Bierschenk, K. Parker, S. Vinci, R. Woodmansee, and J. Schneider.
Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Monterey, CA; May 2010). Paper 384, 2010

A heavily contaminated brownfield site in New York was remediated and redeveloped using a combination of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) and monitored natural attenuation (NA). Four chlorinated VOC (PCE and TCE) source areas were addressed by the thermal technology, and NA of VOCs in the site groundwater is being monitored. About 86,000 lbs of volatile organics were extracted and treated on site. All the thermally treated areas met the negotiated cleanup standard. Based on current trends, all the wells likely will meet the cleanup goals within 5 or 10 years.

Adobe PDF LogoConceptual Design and Cost Estimate: Six-Phase Soil Heating of the Saturated Zone Complex 34 Site at Cape Canaveral
R.J. Cameron and W.O. Heath.
AFRL-ML-TY-TR-1998-4523, NTIS: ADA352350. 45 pp, 1998.

Adobe PDF LogoCost and Performance Review of Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) for Source Treatment: Final Report
A. Gavaskar, M. Bhargava, and W. Condit.
Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, TR-2279-ENV, 133 pp, 2007

The five projects examined in this review took place at four Navy sites and one NASA site, all affected primarily by one or more chlorinated solvent DNAPLs:

  • Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant Bedford (primarily TCE, plus 1,1,1-TCA, PCE, and breakdown products);
  • Naval Complex Charleston (PCE and breakdown products);
  • Former Naval Air Station Alameda (vinyl chloride, DCA, 1,2-DCA, 1,1-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, cis-1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1,2-TCA, TCE, and PCE);
  • Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (1,1,2,2-PCA and TCE); and
  • Cape Canaveral Air Station (TCE and PCE).
  • 2008 Addendum: U.S. Naval Station Annapolis (TeCA, TCE, 1,1,2-TCA)Adobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoA Demonstration of In Situ Thermal Desorption: Destruction of PCBs in Contaminated Soils at Mare Island Shipyard
C. Lonie, J. Reed, G. Brown, and A. Evan.
NFESC-TDS-2051-ENV, NTIS: ADA361264, 5 pp, 1998.

Demonstration of Radiofrequency Soil Decontamination
U.S. Air Force, Armstrong Laboratory Environics Directorate, Tyndall AFB, FL. AL/EQTR-1996-0040, 3 Vols, 1996.

Radiofrequency soil decontamination is essentially a heat-assisted soil vapor extraction process. Two patented techniques were demonstrated at Kelly AFB on a former sump contaminated with waste petroleum, lubricants, and solvents: in 1993, a technique developed by the ITT Research Institute using an array of electrodes placed in the soil, and in 1994, a technique developed by KAI Technologies, Inc., using a single applicator placed in a vertical borehole.

Adobe PDF LogoDemonstration of Resistive Heating Treatment of DNAPL Source Zone at Launch Complex 34 in Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Final Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
Gavaskar, A., et al.
Report No: EPA 540-R-08-004, 133 pp + 241 pp of Appendices, Aug 2008

Adobe PDF LogoDemonstration of Steam Injection as an Enhanced Source Removal Technology for Aquifer Restoration
M.L. Gildea, W.L. Bratton, and L.D. Stewart. ARA-5241, NTIS: ADA364010, 335 pp, 1997.

Adobe PDF LogoDesign, Demonstration and Evaluation of a Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System
J. Phelan, B. Reavis, J. Swanson, [et al]. SAND-97-1251, 168 pp, 1997.

Adobe PDF LogoElectrical Resistance Heating (ERH) Technology Coupled with Air Sparging and Soil Vapor Extraction for Remediation of MTBE and BTEX in Soils and Groundwater in Ronan, Montana
J. Kuhn, K. Manchester, and P. Skibicki.
Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Butte, MT. 8 pp, 2004.

Adobe PDF LogoElectrical Resistance Heating of Soils at C-Reactor at the Savannah River Site
M.R. Morgenstern, J.A. Amari, A.M. MacMurray, M.E. Farrar, T.P. Killeen, and R.F. Blundy.
WSRC-STI-2007-00488, 18 pp, 2007

An interim action was selected in 2004 to remove residual TCE source material by ERH technology coupled with SVE, with subsequent monitoring to determine the rate of decrease in the contaminant plume's concentration. A portable ERH/SVE system was deployed at multiple locations around the site. Extensive data were obtained from the first deployment, which heated the vadose zone down to 62 ft bgs over a 60-day period during the summer of 2006 and raised soil temperatures to over 200 degrees F. This treatment extracted 730 lbs of TCE, and subsequent sampling indicated a removal efficiency of 99.4%.

Electrical Resistance Heating of Volatile Organic Compounds in Sedimentary Rock
Kluger, M. and G.L. Beyke.
Remediation Journal, Vol 20 No 4, p 69-82, 2010

This paper describes the implementation issues for remediation of contaminated sedimentary bedrock and provides case studies of three sites where ERH was used: Annapolis, MarylandAdobe PDF Logo (TeCA); Fair Lawn, New JerseyAdobe PDF Logo (PCE); and Greensburg, IndianaAdobe PDF Logo (TCE and PCE). Abstract

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Footprint Analysis of Steam Enhanced Extraction Remedy: Former Williams Air Force Base, Site ST012, Mesa, AZ
U.S. EPA, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation; U.S. EPA, Region 9.
EPA 542-R-14-004, 73 pp, 2014

This green remediation study quantifies environmental footprint for an in situ thermal treatment remedy using steam enhanced extraction for Site ST012, located on the Former Williams Air Force Base in Mesa , Arizona . The study quantifies contributions to the footprint and identifies and prioritizes best management practices to address the significant contributors during future construction and operation of the thermal system.

Adobe PDF LogoFabrication and Testing for Solar Detoxification Project
S. Doty, N. Widmer, K. Beninga, and J. Cole. SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-97038, NTIS: ADA337946, 121 pp, 1997.

The pilot-scale demonstration test focused on evaluating ultraviolet-rich solar destruction of volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile organics by a solar incinerator and the environmental control of the resulting off-gases.

Adobe PDF LogoField Evaluation of Terratherm In Situ Thermal Destruction (ISTD) Treatment of Hexachlorocyclopentadiene: Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
U.S. EPA, Superfund Innovative Site Evaluation (SITE) Program, Washington, DC.
EPA 540-R-05-007, 63 pp, 2004.

Adobe PDF LogoFinal Report: Cost & Performance Analysis for Thermal Enhancements at Selected Sites
U.S. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, 2005

Adobe PDF LogoGroveland Wells Numbers 1 and 2 Superfund Site — Operable Unit 2: Final Remedial Action Report
U.S. EPA Region 1, 115 pp, 2011

Construction of an electro-thermal dynamic stripping process (ET-DSP(tm)) system, which combined ERH with SVE and multiphase extraction, was completed in four contiguous in situ thermal treatment areas in August 2010 and operated until February 2011 under EPA and Massachusetts DEP oversight. In total, the cleanup system operated for 192 days, removed 1,300 pounds of VOCS from the vadose and saturated zones, recovered over 18 gallons of pure TCE, pumped and treated over two million gallons of contaminated water and condensate, and extracted over 311 million cubic feet of gaseous vapors. Additional information: Superfund Site Progress Profile

Adobe PDF LogoHighly Complex In Situ Thermal Remediations
Soos, L. | Design and Construction Issues at Hazardous Waste Sites Virtual Meeting, 26-28 October, 26 slides, 2020

This presentation focuses on the technical complexities of constructing and operating full-scale thermal remedies at a site in New Jersey and the Brandywine DRMO Superfund site. It describes the various tools available for complex in situ thermal remediation implementations, shares lessons learned, and provides remediation results. Additional information: Longer abstract Adobe PDF Logo; 2018 Record of Decision for the Brandywine DRMO Superfund site Adobe PDF Logo

How Effective Is Thermal Remediation of DNAPL Source Zones in Reducing Groundwater Concentrations?
Baker, R.S., S.G. Nielsen, G. Heron, and N. Ploug.
Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 36(1):38-53(2016)

Evaluation of data from 10 separate DNAPL source areas at 5 in situ thermal remediation project sites indicates that a thorough implementation of ISTR in a DNAPL source area can result in the attenuation of the associated dissolved plume, such that in several cases long-standing P&T systems could be turned off. These findings contrast with assertions that aggressive source remediation may not be justifiable because dissolved plume concentrations will not decline sufficiently.

Adobe PDF LogoImproved Field Evaluation of NAPL Dissolution and Source Longevity
Kavanaugh, M.C., R. Deeb, J. Nyman, L. Stewart, and M. Widdowson.
ESTCP Project ER-200833, 330 pp, 2011

At Site ST012 on the former Williams Air Force Base, the Air Force conducted a pilot test of thermally enhanced extraction (TEE) from 2008 through 2010 to reduce the mass and longevity of a jet fuel source in the saturated zone. Before and after the pilot test, novel tools were applied in the source zone to measure and analyze mass discharge. The tools included integral pumping tests combined with deployment of passive flux meters and multi-component modeling using the source-zone depletion function of the model SEAM3D. The change in the mass discharge rate pre- and post-TEE was compared to the mass removed from the subsurface during the TEE pilot test as a criterion for the success of the demonstration. Additional information: ESTCP Cost & Performance ReportAdobe PDF Logo.

Improving the Sustainability of Source Removal
Baker, R.S., T. Burdett, S.G. Nielsen, M. Faurbye, N. Ploug, J. Holm, U. Hiester, & V. Schrenk.
Sustainable Remediation 2011: State of the Practice — International Conference, June 1-3, 2011, University of Amherst, Massachusetts. 8 pp and 29 slides, 2011

Life-cycle analyses (LCAs) were conducted for four sites in Germany where SVE was later followed by in situ thermal remediation (ISTR) using steam injection (3 sites) or conductive heating (1 site), and at one site in Denmark, where SVE and ISTR were compared with excavation/off-site treatment, and SVE was again followed by ISTR. (In situ thermal desorption was eventually implemented at the Denmark site.) Site-specific conditions varied, but each of the LCAs showed that SVE consumed more energy, produced more waste, and generated more greenhouse gases than ISTR, while requiring a lengthy or even indefinite period of time to achieve site closure. Slide presentationAdobe PDF Logo, PaperAdobe PDF Logo

In Situ Radio Frequency Heating (ISRFH) of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Chalk at a Former Service Station in Kent
CL:AIRE, London, UK. TDP28, 6 pp, 2011

The RF technology used in the 1990s in the United States had relatively limited use compared to other thermal remediation technologies. The UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle (Germany) has developed the ISRFH process and teamed with Ecologia to commercialize it. Through a series of in situ pilot tests, Ecologia developed the electrode design and array, which features specially designed electrodes that are very cheap to manufacture, have a significant radius of influence (i.e., >2.5 m from the electrodes), and deliver the heat selectively at discrete depths to target hot spots. Coupled with an SVE system, RF can achieve very efficient remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, as was demonstrated in a 2008 field trial conducted at a former service station to remove volatile and semi-volatile organic constituents of gasoline and diesel from a chalk subsurface.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Radio Frequency Heating: the Hottest New Thing?
Kasevich, R., J. Rong, and J. McTigue.
In-Situ Thermal Remediation Workshop, 13-14 June 2012, Westford, MA. Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA), 30 slides, 2012

From 2003 to 2006, an RFH/SVE system operated largely remotely for 36 months, removing ~145 lbs of VOCs (TCA DNAPL and elevated dissolved-phase concentrations) from fractured bedrock at a printed circuit-board manufacturing operation in Massachusetts. Post-treatment monitoring through 2011 showed a 99% average decrease within the TCA treatment area (221,000 µg/L to 2,300 µg/L) and a 92% average decrease in TCA concentrations downgradient (23,000 µg/L to 2,000 µg/L). Additional information: FRTR C&P Case Study

In Situ Soil and Groundwater Decontamination Using Electric Resistive Heating Technology (Six-Phase Heating)
CL:AIRE Technology Demonstration Project Bulletin 26 (TDP 26), 6 pp, 2008

This bulletin describes the UK's first use of six-phase heating to accomplish source removal of contaminants resulting from historic contamination of a former tools manufacturing site. Investigations at the 2-hectare site showed high levels of dissolved, adsorbed, and free-phase chlorinated hydrocarbons, primarily TCE and vinyl chloride in the soil and TCE in the groundwater. Post-remediation validation sampling results showed final reductions in adsorbed and dissolved-phase TCE concentrations in excess of 98 and 99%, respectively, at the end of 20 weeks. System redesign and continuous close monitoring and optimization throughout the project maintained elevated contaminant extraction rates and allowed considerable savings.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Thermal Treatment Completion Report, Frontier Fertilizer Superfund Site
U.S. EPA Region 3, 277 pp, 2015

In situ thermal treatment (ISTT) was applied from March 2011 to October 2012 to a source zone containing pesticides: 1,2‐dibromo‐3‐chloropropane, 1,2‐dibromoethane, 1,2‐dichloropropane (DCP), and 1,2,3‐trichloropropane (TCP). The goal was to remove a continuing source of groundwater contamination using electrical resistance heating. When subsurface temperatures allowed, the treatment volume was sampled in August and September 2013. Calculations indicate >95% reduction in contaminant mass. ISTT removed a total of 79.4 lbs of COCs, mainly DCP (52.5 lbs) and TCP (23.0 lbs), from the source zone.

In Situ Thermal Treatment Site Profile Database
U.S. EPA, Technology Innovation Program.

The In Situ Thermal Treatment Site Profile Database was developed to capture data on sites deploying heat-based remediation approaches. This database provides information about completed and ongoing applications of in situ thermal technologies to treat chlorinated solvents, oils and petroleum products, polychlorinated biphenyls, and wood-preserving compounds in groundwater and soil.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Thermal Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications
EPA 542-R-04-010, 145 pp, 2004.

This report contains information about the use of in situ thermal treatment technologies to treat chlorinated solvents in source zones containing free-phase contamination or high concentrations of contaminants that are either sorbed to soil or dissolved in groundwater.

Adobe PDF LogoIn-Situ Thermal Remediation Construction Completion Report
SRSNE Site Group/Connecticut Office of Site Remediation and Restoration/U.S. EPA Region 1, Main report + appendices A, B, C, E, and F, 2015

A multi-phase cleanup is underway at the Solvents Recovery Service of New England site, located on ~14 acres of land along the Quinnipiac River in Southington, CT. In situ thermal remediation completed in 2015 removed >99% of the targeted waste oils and solvents (PCE, TCE, TCA, etc.) in soils beneath the site. See details in Appendix F: In-Situ Thermal Remediation Demonstration of Attainment of Interim NAPL Cleanup Levels and Recommendations. Following site preparation (2010-2013), treatment was conducted between 2013 and 2015 via a network of 607 heating probes and 551 vapor recovery wells. Additional information: SRSNE websiteAdobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoInnovative Technology Summary Report: Remediation of DNAPLs in Low Permeability Soils
U.S. DOE, Office of Environmental Management.
DOE/EM-0550, 35 pp, 2000.

DOE conducted a 1996-1998 comparative field demonstration of hydraulic fracturing to address TCE contamination at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Fractures in both the vadose and saturated zones within low permeability silt and clay deposits were used for soil vapor extraction enhanced by the introduction of steam and hot air, as well as for the emplacement of reactive barriers of iron metal and potassium permanganate.

Adobe PDF LogoInnovative Technology Summary Report: Six Phase Soil Heating
U.S. DOE, Office of Environmental Management.
DOE/EM-0272, 30 pp, 1995.

Adobe PDF LogoMontrose Superfund Site Los Angeles, California Final Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) Pilot Test Report
Montrose Chemical Corporation of California, 126 pp, 2020

A pilot test combined ERH technology with a vapor recovery (VR) and treatment system to reduce mobile DNAPL mass to the extent practicable. The system used a single power control unit, one steam condenser and cooling tower, and a VR blower. Captured vapors were treated with a steam regenerated granulated activated carbon (SRGAC) unit and polishing vapor-phase granulated activated carbon units (VGAC). All process water was treated via liquid-phase granular activated carbon prior to discharge. Based on direct measurement of accumulated DNAPL and estimates of mass captured on polish VGAC, ~26,600 lbs of total VOCs were recovered from the treatment volume during ERH heating. A total of 2,519 gal of DNAPL were recovered by the SRGAC unit. Confirmatory sampling within the pilot test treatment volume indicated an average monochlorobenzene (MCB) mass reduction of 99.86%.

New Advancements for In Situ Treatment Using Electrical Resistance Heating
Powell, T., G. Smith, J. Sturza, K. Lynch, and M. Truex.
Remediation, Vol 17 No 2, p 51-70, 2007

At the Fort Lewis, Washington, East Gate Disposal Yard, chlorinated solvents (primarily TCE) and petroleum products are being treated in situ in several contaminant source areas using electrical resistance heating (ERH) and multiphase extraction. This paper updates the progress of the project and discusses data that provide insights into the biotic and abiotic degradation processes observed throughout the range of operating temperatures.

Adobe PDF LogoOperational Risk Control & Adaptive Change Management During An Accelerated In-Situ Thermal Treatment Schedule
Geckeler, G. and P. Kakarla. | DCHWS 2021 Design and Construction at Hazardous Waste Sites Virtual Symposium, 29-30 March and 1 April, Virtual, 12 slides, 2021

This presentation highlights adaptive change management in the remedial design at a site with PCE and TCE concentrations as high as 20,000 mg/kg and 1,400 mg/kg, respectively, in the underlying glacial deposits. Site redevelopment plans drove the schedule for remediation. Thermal conduction heating was selected to remediate the contaminated soil, and the volatilized contaminants were extracted, condensed, and treated onsite. Challenges included the presence of subsurface utilities and utility restrictions.

Adobe PDF LogoPerformance Evaluation of Technology Demonstration for Dynamic Underground Stripping with Hydrous Pyrolysis Oxidation (DUS/HPO) Using a Single Well at Beale Air Force Base
W.S. Yoon, A. Gavaskar, S. McCall, J. Sminchak, S. Carroll, G. Heron, and J. Hicks.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Project ER-0014, 366 pp, Apr 2005

Evaluates a demonstration of DUS/HPO technology using a single well in a groundwater plume of dissolved-phase TCE and PCE at Beale Air Force Base, where contaminant levels showed declining trends—up to 85% in TCE levels and up to 91% in PCE levels—in the treatment zone monitoring wells.

Adobe PDF LogoRemoval Action Completion Report: Electrical Resistance Heating in Source Area, Former Mercury Cleaners Site Area, 1419 16th Street, Sacramento, California
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region, 1102 pp, 2018

Soil and groundwater treatment to remediate the impacts of petroleum-based Stoddard Solvent and of PCE and its daughter products at the Mercury Cleaners site began in 2015 with an SVE system pilot test, which is still operating. A source area removal action was implemented in an area ~40 ft by 40 ft in November 2016 using an in situ ERH thermal desorption system comprising 15 electrode/vapor recovery wells located within the source area and connected to the SVE system. The ERH system discontinued operation on July 7, 2017. Although source area cleanup goals were not met completely, significant PCE mass was removed from the source area.

Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) Pre-Design Evaluation (PDE) Report, Quendall Terminals, Renton, Washington
U.S. EPA Region 10, Doc. ID 100116994, 122 pp, 2018

Distillation of coal and oil-gas tar residues to make creosote at Quendall Terminals from 1916 to 1969 led to environmental releases of coal tar and distillate products. DNAPL impacts at the site have been observed to a maximum depth of 34 ft bgs. STAR, an innovative in situ thermal technology based on principles of smoldering combustion, uses organic contaminants as its fuel source. The smoldering process is sustained by the addition of air through a well to the target treatment zone and is initiated through a short-duration, low-energy ignition event. A field pilot test was conducted to evaluate key design parameters for a full-scale STAR system and to evaluate the potential influence of site-specific matrix heterogeneities on the process. The field pre-design activity evaluated the combustion front radius of influence, mass destruction and combustion front propagation rates, and volatile mass loading in collected vapors. This report describes the field activities, feasibility results, and recommendations for implementing the STAR in situ thermal technology.

Site Characterization and ERH Remediation of VOCS in Soil, Groundwater, LNAPL And DNAPL (Part 1)
Kinney, T. ǀ American Institute of Professional Geologists Michigan Section Workshop, 15-17 June, virtual, 46 minutes, 2021

This video describes an ERH system designed to simultaneously treat 5 separate source areas (totaling ~156,000 ft2 and extending to a depth of ~25 feet bgs) at a former manufacturing facility. Investigation tools ranged from traditional soil and groundwater sampling to membrane interface probe (MIP), and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Data visualization helped define areas for further characterization as well as the areas and volumes for remediation. The objectives of the remedy (shallow soil excavation and ERH) were to remove NAPL, reduce source area concentrations, prevent human exposure, and prevent offsite contaminant migration. After 241 days of operation, remediation goals were met by reducing cVOCs by a minimum of 99% or by reducing TCE and TCA to below 1 ppm. ERH removed ~6,721 pounds of VOCs based on a vapor phase treatment monitoring and an additional 7,665 gallons, or ~56,600 pounds, of LNAPL. The usage of digital data compilation and analysis helped streamline both the characterization and remediation activities for this complex project,

Adobe PDF LogoSix-Phase Soil Heating of the Saturated Zone, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware
T.M. Bergsman and L.M. Peurrung.
NTIS: ADA332710, 71 pp, 1997.

Smoldering Remediation of Coal-Tar-Contaminated Soil: Pilot Field Tests of STAR
Scholes, G.C., J.I. Gerhard, G.P. Grant, D.W. Major, J.E. Vidumsky, C. Switzer, and J.L. Torero.
Environmental Science & Technology 49(24)14334-14342(2015)

Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an emerging, smoldering-based technology for NAPL remediation. In the first in situ field evaluation of STAR, pilot tests were performed at 3.0 m (shallow test) and 7.9 m (deep test) bgs within distinct lithological units contaminated with coal tar at a former industrial facility. The project mapped the outward propagation of a NAPL smoldering front, quantified the NAPL destruction rate in real time, and demonstrated self-sustained smoldering (i.e., after termination of ignition) below the water table. The shallow test destroyed a total of 3,700 kg of coal tar over 12 days, while the deep test destroyed 860 kg over 11 days. This field evaluation demonstrates the in situ effectiveness of STAR under different conditions and provides the information needed to design a full-scale site treatment.

Southern California Edison Co. (Visalia Poleyard)
Contact (2007): Emmanuel Mensah, State of California,, 916-255-3704

The 20-acre site was operated as a utility pole treatment yard from the 1920s until 1980, and approximately 275,000 poles were treated at the site. Wood preservatives, including 2,500,000 gallons of creosote and 900,000 gallons of pentachlorophenol, were used and stored on site during site operations. In 1977, a slurry wall was built to slow contaminant migration in the shallow aquifer. Southern California Edison, the potentially responsible party, removed all facilities and 2,300 cubic yards of contaminated soil and disposed of it off site at an approved disposal facility. The site has a subsurface barrier wall and a groundwater extraction and on-site treatment system. Starting in 1997, a pre-design pilot-scale steam injection system was installed. It injected over 100,000,000 pounds of steam, which greatly enhanced recovery of pole-treating chemicals. In addition, a full-scale steam injection system was used over a 30-month period to remove and destroy over 150,000 gallons of contamination from the site. Once the subsurface temperature dropped below 70°C, vadose zone bioventing and saturated zone biosparging operated with continued groundwater pump and treat from June 2000 until March 2004. Following the 2005 5-year review, contaminated surface soil to 10 feet below grade was removed in July 2006 and verified with confirmatory sampling to be below the prescribed cleanup standards. The final site closeout report was signed on May 19, 2009. Additional information: In Situ Destruction of Contaminants via Hydrous Pyrolysis/Oxidation: Visalia Field TestAdobe PDF Logo (1998); Innovative Technology Summary Report: Hydrous Pyrolysis Oxidation/Dynamic Underground StrippingAdobe PDF Logo (2000).

Adobe PDF LogoSteam Enhanced Remediation Research for DNAPL in Fractured Rock: Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine
E. Davis, N. Akladiss, R. Hoey, B. Brandon, M. Nalipinski, S. Carroll, G. Heron, K. Novakowski, and K. Udell.
EPA 540-R-05-010, 194 pp, 2005.

Steam and Electroheating Remediation of Tight Soils
K. Biddle-Balshaw, C.L. Oubre, and C. H. Ward.
Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN: 1566704650, 448 pp, 1999.

Presents the results of a field study testing the cleanup of semi-volatile fuels from tight soils using a combination of hydraulic fracturing, soil heating, and vapor extraction. Contains computer modeling analysis, Fort Hood field site description, performance data evaluation, design criteria developed from field performance data, and technical and cost evaluations.

Adobe PDF LogoSteam-Enhanced Extraction and Thermal Conduction Heating for In Situ Treatment of Tetrachloroethylene
Cole, J., M. Singer, S. Offner, D. Williamson, J. Galligan, D. Phelan, S. Fournier, G. Heron, D. Timmons, P. King, and S. Trussell.
Eighth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, May 20-24, 2012, Monterey, California. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. 25 slides, 2012

In situ thermal remediation to remove PCE DNAPL from the site's soil and groundwater at Arnold Air Force Base, TN, relied on both thermal conduction heating and steam injection. SVE wells and multiphase extraction wells completed between 45-90 ft bgs were located within and around the treatment zone for hydraulic and pneumatic gradient control during treatment. After 16 months of system operation in 2010-2011 and removal of ~165,000 lbs of PCE, the thermal systems achieved the revised remedial goals established under the performance-based contract. Additional information on this project was published in EPA's Technology News & Trends newsletter of October 2012.

Adobe PDF LogoTechnical Performance Evaluation for Phase I of the C-400 Interim Remedial Action at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky
U.S. DOE, Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office.
DOE/LX/07-1260&D1, 190 pp, Aug 2011

Phase I implementation of ERH was conducted as the C-400 IRA remedy to remove VOC contamination, mainly TCE, from subsurface soils. Full operation began at the end of March 2010, and heating ended at the end of October 2010, while SVE continued until all system operations ended on December 4, 2010. Post-operational sampling results show average percent reductions in contaminant concentrations of 95% for soil and 76% for groundwater in the east area, and 99% for both soil and groundwater in the southwest area. Target temperatures were not attained in the electrically resistive deep regional gravel aquifer due to groundwater flow velocity, formation resistivity, and heat loss by convective flow.

Thermal DNAPL Source Zone Treatment Impact on a CVOC Plume
Heron, G., J. Bierschenk, R. Swift, R. Watson, and M. Kominek.
Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 36(1):26-37(2016)

The dissolved-phase PCE plume emanating from the source zone at a site in Endicott, NY, was commingled with a petroleum hydrocarbon plume from an upgradient source of fuel oil. Implementation of in situ thermal desorption in the source area removed ~1,406 kg of PCE and 4,082 kg of commingled petroleum-related compounds. The treatment reduced the PCE mass discharge into the plume from an estimated 57 kg/yr to 0.07 kg/yr, essentially removing the source term. Five years following ISTD completion in early 2010, the PCE plume had collapsed and degradation products concentration in the PCE-series plume area declined by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. Based on post-ISTD groundwater monitoring data, the hydraulic containment system was downsized in 2014 and discontinued in early 2015.

Adobe PDF LogoThermal Remediation: Two ERH Case Studies
Waldron, J.
In-Situ Thermal Remediation Workshop, 13-14 June 2012, Westford, MA. Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA), 22 slides, 2012

During the recycling of hazardous chemicals, mainly chlorinated VOCs, at the Silresim site (Lowell, MA), the site became contaminated with VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, and PCBs. An ERH system for source removal was completed July 2011, comprising 204 electrodes, 50 vapor extraction wells, and 77 multiphase extraction wells. Operation of the ERH system in shallow and deep overburden from July 2011 through February 2012 used 9.6 million Kwh of electricity to remove an estimated 40,000 to 86,000 pounds of VOCs, including 3,480 lbs of NAPL. [Note: Groveland Wells 1 & 2 is the other case study in this presentation.] Additional information: 2011 Preliminary Closeout ReportAdobe PDF Logo; Superfund Site Progress Profile

Adobe PDF LogoThermal Treatment of Thick Peat Layers: DNAPL Removal and Shrinkage
Nielsen, S.G., G. Heron, P.J. Jensen, C. Riis, T. Heron, P. Johansen, N. Ploug, and J. Holm.
CONSOIL 2010, 22-24 September, Salzburg, Austria.

A PCE DNAPL source zone in a wetland area in Denmark was treated using thermal conduction heating combined with multi-phase extraction. Based on the results of a 2006 pilot test of In-Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD), the source area was hydraulically isolated by installation of metal sheet piles for more effective heating and remediation. The DNAPL source zone was treated thermally at 100 degrees C using ISTD. Thick peat layers contaminated with PCE DNAPL were remediated to average soil PCE concentrations of 0.17 mg/kg (99.6% reduction compared to starting levels) in 83 days of heating.

Adobe PDF LogoTreatment Using Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) of Source Area CVOCs at a Former Manufacturing Facility, Newtown, CT
Taddeo, A.
In-Situ Thermal Remediation Workshop, 13-14 June 2012, Westford, MA. Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA), 31 slides, 2012

The remedial strategy for chlorinated VOCs at a former metal tubing manufacturing facility located next to a railroad line in a suburban woodland/wetland area called for ERH in the source area and in situ bioremediation for the adjacent area and off-site plumes. ERH treatment was designed for a minimum duration of 4 months, with at least 30 days at 100 degrees C to reach 760 ppb or less TCE (reduction of 99.9% or greater) at an all-inclusive cost of $120/cy. Post-treatment residual TCE mass is very low, and the TCE mass flux has fallen below the TCE mass flux associated with the cleanup goal for the site. Additional information: ERH permitting concerns by the Connecticut DEEPAdobe PDF Logo

USA Defense Depot Memphis
U.S. EPA Region 4 Web site.

The most consistently detected VOC group of chemicals at concentrations above comparison criteria in the site media are CVOCs, such as TCE, PCE, 1,1,2,2-PCA, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. The final ROD (2004) for Dunn Field calls for excavation and off-site disposal of the contents of pits and burial trenches, SVE of principal-threat waste in the unsaturated subsurface soils, treatment of the groundwater CVOCs via injection of ZVI, and installation of a ZVI PRB to address high groundwater concentrations downgradient of Dunn Field. SVE operation began in the VOC-contaminated sand and gravel layer beneath source areas in July 2007. In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) began in the VOC-contaminated silty clay zone (top 30 ft) in May 2008. VOC removals for all remedies to date (soil and groundwater) totals ~9,000 pounds. A revised proposed plan and ROD amendment are planned for 2009 to document changes undertaken to achieve the remedial action objectives of the original ROD.

Adobe PDF LogoUse of Electrical Resistive Heating for the Remediation of CVOC and Petroleum Impacts in Soil and Groundwater, New York City, New York
Nichols, H.
In-Situ Thermal Remediation Workshop, 13-14 June 2012, Westford, MA. Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA), 14 slides, 2012

ERH was implemented at a former industrial property located in New York City to address both petroleum and chlorinated VOC impacts. The targeted treatment depths varied between 25 and 40 ft below grade in an area of one-quarter acre, an estimated treatment volume of ~13,750 cubic yds. Shallow treatment was intended to address the area affected only by petroleum hydrocarbons, with intermediate treatment for the area affected by TCE and daughter products. During 283 days of ERH operation, the system removed over 3,200 lbs of VOCs from the site, including 2,800 lbs of TCE (equivalent to ~230 gallons of pure product). VOC groundwater concentrations were reduced over 99.99%.

Adobe PDF LogoWater as a Reagent for Soil Remediation
I.S. Jayaweera, M. Marti-Perez, J. Diaz-Ferrero, A. Sanjurjo, SRI International. DOE/BC/15224-1, 81 pp, 2001.

Hot water extraction (HWE) technology is being developed for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils and sediments. The HWE process involves using water with added electrolytes as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150 to 300 degrees C). The electrolytes allow the reactors to operate under mild conditions at high separation efficiencies. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. Most of the basic components of this technique are mature technologies: steam stripping, soil washing, and thermal desorption.

Adobe PDF LogoWestern Research Institute: Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW) Process. Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
EPA 540-R-00-500, 112 pp, 2000.

The CROW hot-water injection technology was demonstrated at the Brodhead Creek Superfund site in Stroudsburg, PA, over a 20-month period. The injection and recovery wells targeted an accumulation of free-phase coal tar.

Adobe PDF LogoWhite Paper on Thermal Remediation Technologies for Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents: Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Simi Valley, California
California Department of Toxic Substances Control, 69 pp, 2018

This paper summarizes the primary types of ISTR, discusses their effectiveness in reducing chlorinated VOC contamination in bedrock, and provides several specific examples of full-scale implementation.