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U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Activated Carbon-Based Technology for In Situ Remediation

Application

Applications of AC-based amendments for in situ subsurface remediation of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, started emerging in early 2000s. Interest in AC-based amendments grew over the last five years when competing products became available to the remediation industry. Although the majority of the sites have relatively small foot print (e.g., gas stations and dry cleaners), applications at large industrial sites are also common. The list below links to published, reported, and presented case studies, including both federal sites and non-federal sites.


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Applications at Federal Sites | Applications at Non-Federal Sites

Applications at Federal Sites

BOS-100® Application at Statesville, North Carolina Superfund Site

Adobe PDF LogoAngled Injection to Mitigate PCE Intrusion into a Stream at a Federal Superfund Site in the Piedmont Region of North Carolina
Krouse C., Fitzgerald S., Noland S., and Thacker N.
10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. Palm Springs, CA (May 2016)

An in situ reactive barrier using BOS-100® was installed at OU3 of the FCX Superfund site in Statesville, North Carolina, to mitigate the impact of a PCE plume (up to ~20 µg/L) to a small surface stream. Angled injection of amendments was applied to intercept the vertical movement of contaminated groundwater towards the streambed. A pilot test was conducted in October and November 2013, and the full-scale implementation was conducted in 2015. Contaminant concentrations in both porewaters of the streambed and surface water were monitored since the implementations.

PlumeStop™ Application at a RCRA site in South Carolina

Accelerated Biodegradation of Chlorinated Contaminants Facilitated Using an In-Situ Liquid Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study and Full-Scale Application in South Carolina
Valentine, M.
RemTEC 2017. Denver, CO (March 2017) [Abstract]

A RCRA corrective action site in South Carolina applied colloidal AC-technology (PlumeStop) to mitigate the migration of a long and narrow chlorinated VOC plume to a downgradient residential area. A pilot study was conducted in 2014 to confirm the effectiveness of contaminant removal and degradation using a combination of PlumeStop and enhanced reductive dechlorination. Full-scale application was subsequently conducted in 2016 by injecting PlumeStop suspension in three transects along the concentration gradient of the plume. The electron donor solution and bioaugmentation culture were injected slightly upgradient of the PlumeStop barriers. This remedy was coupled with an ongoing source-reduction remedy. Contaminant concentrations, production of daughter products, and microbial data were collected to monitor the remedy performance.

BOS-100® Application at Vandenberg Air Force Base Site 15

Pilot-Scale Permeable Reactive Barrier Installation Using Deep Soil Mixing and BOS100®
Gerber K., Mora R., White K., and Noland S.
7th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Presentation E-084. Monterey, CA (May 2010)

One of the first applications of an activated carbon-based remedy for chlorinated solvent contamination was at Site 15 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. BOS-100®, a product consisting of granular activated carbon impregnated with zerovalent iron, was emplaced by deep-soil mixing to form a permeable reactive barrier. The goal of this pilot-scale implementation was to determine if the PRB could limit the impact of a mixed chlorinated solvent plume to an adjacent creek. Soil mixing was selected as the emplacement approach after two rounds of direct push injection (both low- and high-pressure) failed to give good amendment distribution. One year of post-remedy data was reported, including concentrations of PCE, cis-DCE, and VC in various monitoring wells downgradient of the PRB.

BOS-100® Application at the Former Lowry Air Force Base (OU5), Colorado

Adobe PDF LogoSecond Five Year Review, Former Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado
Lowry Assumption, LLC. (October 2013)

BOS-100® was applied at OU5 of the Former Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado to address a carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume. The first injection in 2008 emplaced 15,000 lbs of amendment into both the bedrock source area and overlying saturated alluvium. A smaller injection (600 lbs) in 2010 addressed residual CT in the vicinity of one monitoring well. AC-based technology was selected because prior injection of activated sodium persulfate reduced CT concentration in groundwater but later rebounded and did not achieve the 5 µg/L Colorado Basic Groundwater Standard for CT.

COGAC® Application at the Hill Air Force Base, Utah

LNAPL Remediation Combining Mobile Dual-Phase Extraction with Concurrent Injection of a Carbon-Based Amendment
Barranco F.T., Taylor J., Hoyt D., Bradley K., and Roginske M., Barranco F.
11th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Session C6-70. Palm Springs, CA (April 2018)

This case study illustrates an example where activated carbon-based technology was coupled with a more aggressive treatment technology to address source area contamination. The soil and groundwater of the site are contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as a result of leaks from tanks and piping. The presence of LNAPL and a smear zone acts a continuing source of dissolved-phase contamination. The selected remedy for this treatability study was concurrent operation of mobile dual-phase extraction (mDPE) and direct injection of COGAC®, a combination of activated carbon and chemical oxidants. The concept was to removal free-phase product and dissolved-phase contaminants as much as possible with mDPE and control the mass flux coming out of the residual contamination with emplacement of COGAC®.

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Applications at Non-Federal Sites

BOS-100® Application to Treat Residual DNAPL

Innovative Injection Technique to Treat DNAPL in Granular and Fine-Grained Matrices
Noland S., Boyle R., and Harp T.
8th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. Monterey, CA (May 2012) Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. 8 pp

Adobe PDF LogoObtaining High-Resolution Data to Demonstrate BOS-100® Performance in a Large TCE Plume with Extensive DNAPL Present
Harp T.
9th International Conference for Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA (May 2014)

This case study highlights the importance of having a comprehensive understanding of complex site conditions to improve the effectiveness of an activated carbon-based remedy. High-energy, low-volume pulses of a water-based suspension of BOS 100®, granular activated carbon impregnated with metallic iron, were employed to remediate a TCE source area and associated plumes at a large urban industrial facility. Injections were facilitated using conventional hydraulic fracturing. Although large portions of the dissolved-phase plume responded to this technique, some areas were resistant, suggesting input from unknown sources. High-resolution sampling indicated the presence of localized thin seams of DNAPL-impacted soil at several locations in the vicinity of the former TCE underground storage tank with extremely high vertical heterogeneity. A modified "jetting" approach was developed that allowed extremely accurate placement and greater amount of injectant/soil mixing over a relatively thick zone.

BOS-100® Application for Treating PCE in Bedrock

Karst Bedrock Remediation of PCE in Kentucky
Guilfoil, D.
33rd Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water, and Energy. Amherst, MA (October 2017)

This study describes an early application of activated carbon-based technologies where long-term monitoring data (up to six years post implementation) is available. PCE was the main contaminant found in both overburden and epi-karst type of bedrock at a former dry-cleaning facility in Kentucky. PCE concentrations initially ranged from 0.4 mg/L to 87 mg/L in the groundwater and from <1 mg/kg to 500 mg/kg in the soil. A combination of down-hole camera and borehole geophysics was used to determine the specific fracture intervals to target hydraulic tests. BOS-100® was injected into each fracture using a straddle packer under pressure. Loading was determined based on the PCE concentration. Subsequent groundwater sampling monitored the effectiveness of injection and the disappearance of PCE as well as the production of daughter products, chloride, and final dechlorination products.

Pilot Injection of Carbo-Iron at a PCE site in Europe

Carbo-Iron as Improvement of the Nanoiron Technology: From Laboratory Design to the Field Test
Mackenzie K., Bleyl S., Kopinke F., Doose H., and Bruns J.
Science of the Total Environment. 563-564:641-648 (2016) [Abstract]

This peer-reviewed article details a long-term pilot injection of Carbo-Iron at a PCE-contaminated site in Europe. Carbo-Iron is a non-commercial product that consists of colloidal activated carbon (< 1 µm) impregnated with nano zerovalent iron (nZVI). The suspension is stabilized by carboxymethylcellulose to prevent aggregation and improve subsurface transport of the colloidal particles. The suspension was injected in a highly contaminated area where the highest PCE measured concentration in groundwater was 120 ppm. Two rounds of injections (roughly one year apart) were conducted. Concentrations of PCE, DCE, and VC were monitored for more than three years. The impact of Carbo-Iron injection on microbial population and dechlorination activity was also characterized at the conclusion of the monitoring event. Potential abiotic and biotic transformation pathways of PCE and its daughter products were proposed. The scientific insights revealed in this study provides independent verification for some claims made for commercial AC-based products used for remediation in the U.S.

Combined Chemical and Microbiological Degradation of Tetrachloroethene during the Application of Carbo-Iron at a Contaminated Field Site
Vogel M., Nijenhuis I., Lloyd J., Boothman C., Poritz M., and Mackenzie K.
Science of the Total Environment. 628-629:1027-1036 (2018) [Abstract]

Injection of PlumeStop® + HRC® at a chlorinated solvent site in Italy

Combining In Situ Sorption and Bioremediation for the Management of a Chlorinated Solvent Plume at Low Concentration
Petrangeli Papini M, Arjmand F., Ciampi P., Esposito C., Bimstingl J., Carboni M., Goria P., Rossetti S., Matturo B., Cesta Incani L., and Bacchi M.
11th International Conference for Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Palm Springs, CA (April 2018)

The first full-scale application of PlumeStop® in Europe was commissioned to the University of Rome "La Sapienza" to evaluate the effectiveness of combining adsorption and reductive dechlorination. The contaminated area is beneath a high-speed railway station in Bologna, Italy, with low concentration of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) present. The remedial goal was to reach the stringent Maximum Contaminant Levels for PCE and TCE set by the Italian government. Four zones with the highest CAH concentrations were selected for this remedy. Parent and daughter products Almost two years of monitoring data of parent and daughter products were available when this study was presented.

Injection of PlumeStop® + HRC® at a chlorinated solvent site

Site goals Achieved in Two Months at a Santa Barbara Manufacturing Facility Using a Dispersive Colloidal Activated Carbon
Haro E., Nunez D.
11th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Palm Springs, CA (April 2018)

This site is a former manufacturing facility with low concentrations of PCE and TCE. Previous remediation using limited excavation and permanganate oxidation did not achieve the cleanup level. Due to the urgency of development, PlumeStop® coupled with enhanced reductive dechlorination was selected to rapidly remove contaminants from aqueous phase. Detailed site characterizations were conducted to identify the transmissive zones and high mass zones, according to which the full-scale injection plan was developed.

Applications of AC-based technology for Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Adobe PDF LogoLessons Learned and Paths to Success with Activated Carbon Injections
Winner E. and Fox T.
ASTSWMO Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA (April 2016)

Adobe PDF LogoPetroleum Remediation Using In-situ Activated Carbon (A review of results)
Fox T.
National Tanks Conference. Phoenix, AZ (September 2015)

This presentation reviews performance results of some early applications of AC-based technology in treating petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites in Colorado. It highlights several important lessons learned that have been used to develop and adopt best practice for implementing AC-based remedial technology.

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